Distribution and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Soils around Some Selected Auto Repair Workshops in Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria

Distribution and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Soils around Some Selected Auto Repair Workshops in Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria ( Vol-3,Issue-2,March - April 2018 )

Author: B. Anegbe, J.M. Okuo, M. Atenaga, A. Ighodaro, A. Emina., N.A. Oladejo

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.2.35

Keyword: Soil, Heavy Metals, Speciation, Bioavailability, Mobility.

Abstract: Soil contamination by heavy metals is a worldwide environmental problem. Hence determining the chemical forms of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and bioavailability. This study determined the distribution and speciation of some heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) in soils around some selected auto repair workshops in Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected with the aid of soil Augar within a depth of 0 – 15 cm from the vicinity of the four selected auto repair workshops in Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria. The control samples were taken from a site free from auto repair and commercial activities. The soil samples were assessed for some physico-chemical properties, total heavy metal concentration, chemical speciation, mobility and some metal assessment indices of the heavy metals as a function of soil properties. The mean concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in all the sites analyzed were 550.54, 31.08, 36.15, 4.21 and 1.11 mg/kg respectively. Site B and the control had the highest and lowest total concentration of the five metals analyzed respectively. The levels of Cu were above the DPR target value in sites A and B, while the levels of Cd were above the target value in all the sites except in the control site. All the metals were found to be mostly concentrated in the residual fraction except Zn which was found mostly in the carbonate fraction. The mobility factors revealed that Zn is the most mobile element with an average mobility factor of 41.54% while Cd is the least mobile element with an average mobility factor of 16.51%. Contamination factors, index of geoaccumulation and pollution load index were also calculated. This study showed that mechanic workshop is one of the major sources of anthropogenic heavy metals concentration in the environment.


[1] Adefemi, O.S., Olaofe D. and Asaolu S.S., (2007). Seasonal variation in heavy metal distribution in the sediment of major dams in Ekiti-State. Pakistan J. Nutrition, 6(6): 705-707.
[2] Adriano, D.C. (1992). “Biogeochemistry of trace metals”. Boca Raton, Lewis Publisher Florida 514.
[3] Amanda, J.Z. and Weindorf, D.C. (2010). “Heavy metal and trace metal analysis by sequential extraction: A review of procedures”. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry 1-7.
[4] Anegbe, B. and Okuo, J.M. (2013): The Impacts of Quarry Factory on the Physico-Chemical properties of Soil and their Potential Health effects on the Surrounding Ecosystem. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science 31: 126-135.
[5] Anegbe, B., Eguavoen, I.W., Oviawe, A.P., Ogbeide,O. and Osayande, A.D. (2014). Profile of heavy metals in soil samples obtained from five auto repair workshops in Benin City Edo State. Biological and Environmental Science Journal for the Tropics, 11(2):84-93.
[6] Anegbe, B., Okuo, J.M. and Okieimen, F.E. (2017). Characterization and remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. Mostvirtue Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 1st edition pp 177.
[7] Anegbe, B., Okuo, J.M., Ewekay, E.O. and Ogbeifun, D.E. (2014). Fractionation of Lead-Acid Battery Soil amended with Biochar. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 7(2):36-43.
[8] Anietie O. V. and Labunmi L. (2015). Surface Soil Pollution by Heavy Metals: A Case Study of Two Refuse Dumpsites in Akure Metropolis. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 4(3): 71-74.
[9] Arias M. E., Gonzalez-Perez J. A., Gonzalez-Villa F. J. and Ball A. S. (2005): Soil Health: A new challenge for microbiologists and chemists. International Microbiology 8: 13-21.
[10] Asagba, E.U, Okieimen, F.E. and Osokpor, J. (2007). “Screening and speciation of heavy metal contaminated soil from an automobile spare-parts market, chemical speciation and bioavalability”. 19(1): 9 – 15.
[11] Bentum J. K., Anang M., Boadu K. O., Koranteng-Addo E. J. and Owusu A. E. (2011). Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution of Sediments from Fosu Lagoon IN Ghana Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 25(2), 191-196.
[12] CUCE, (2007): Cornell University Cooperative Extension; Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Agronomy Fact Sheet Series No 22, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University.
[13] DPR-EGASPIN, (2002). Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN), Department of Petroleum Resources, Lagos, Nigeria.
[14] Emmanuel O. F. and Edward O. O. (2010): Evaluation of the Status of Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil and Plant (Chromolaena odorata) of Agbabu Bitumen Deposit Area, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 5 (4): 241-248.
[15] Fonge, B. A., Nkoleka, E. N., Asong, F. Z., Ajonina, S. A. and Che, V. B. (2016). “Heavy metal contamination in soils from a municipal landfill, surrounded by banana plantation in the eastern flank of Mount Cameroon” African Journal of Biotechnology. 16(25): 1391-1399, 21.
[16] Gbadegesin, A.S. and Abua, M.A. (2011): Variation of Soil Properties on Cassava Production in the Coastal Area of Southern Cross River State, Nigeria. J. Geography and Geol., 3(1):94-103.
[17] Godwin A. E., Imaobong A. E., and Helen S. E. (2014). Speciation, Distribution and Bioavailability of Essential Elements in Waste Impacted Soils Within Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, Annals. Food Science and Technology, 15(1): 162-171.
[18] Harikumar P. S., Nasir U. P. and Mujeebu Rahma M. P. (2009): Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system; International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 6, pp. 225-232.
[19] Igwe, J.C., Nnorom, I.C. and Gbaruko, B.C. (2005). Kinetics of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Behaviour in Soils: Implications for Plant Growth. African J. of Biotechnology, 4(13):1541 – 1547.
[20] Imasuen O. I. and Omorogieva O. M. (2013): Comparative Study of Heavy Metals Distribution in a Mechanic Workshop and a Refuse Dumpsite in Oluku and Otofure Benin City, Edo State, Southwestern Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage.Vol. 17 (3) 425-430.
[21] Ipeaiyeda, A.R. and Dawodu, M. (2008). “Heavy metals contamination of topsoil and dispersion in the vicinities of reclaimed auto-repair workshops in Iwo Nigeria”. Bulletin of Chemical Society Ethiopia 22:339-593.
[22] Iwegbue, C.M.A. (2007). “Metal fractionation in soil profiles at automobile mechanic waste dumps”. Waste Management Research 25:585-593.
[23] Kabala, C. and Singh, B. R. (2001). Fractionation and Mobility of Copper, Lead and Zinc in Soil Profile in the vicinity of a Copper Smelter, J. Environ. Qual. 30:485 – 495.
[24] Kabata-Pendias, A. and Mukherjee, A.B. (2007). “Trace Elements from Soil to Human”: Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[25] Karaca A (2004) Effect of organic wastes on the extractability of Cadmium, Copper, nickel and Zinc in Soil. Geoderma 122: 297- 303.
[26] Lawan I. B., Stephen S. H., Goni A. D. and Muhammad T. (2012): Study of Vertical Migration of Heavy Metals in Dumpsites Soil. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 2, 50-55.
[27] Manceau A. N., Tamora S., Celestre R. S., MacDowell A. A., Sposito G., and Padmore H.A. (2006): Determining trace metal speciation in soils at molecular scale by combine x-ray fluorescence, diffraction and absorption. Environmental Geochemical Group Hillard Hall University of California: 1-4.
[28] Norvell, W.A. (1984). “Comparison of chelating agents for metals in diverse soil materials”, Soil Science Society of America Journal 48:1285-1292.
[29] Nwachukwu, M. A., Feng, H. and Alinnor, J. (2010). “Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the soil and their implications within and around mechanic villages”. Int. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7(2): 347 – 358.
[30] Obasi N. A., Akubugwo E. I., Kalu K. M., Ugbogu A. E. and Okorie U. C. (2013): Toxicological Assessment of Various Metals on Selected Edible Leafy Plants of Umuka and Ubahu Dumpsites in Okigwe of Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 1(6): 441-453.
[31] Okiemen, F.E., Emwanta, D.O. and Odilayo, O.O. (2012). Stabilization of heavy Metals in CCA Contaminated Soil. International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences. 7(2): 215-232.
[32] Okuo, J.M., Eloho, R. and Anegbe, B. (2016). Physico-chemical assessment of Delta South Aquifer – A case study of Oleh and Uzere in Delta State. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science. 34:43-55.
[33] Oviasogie, P.O., Ukpebor, E.E. and Omoti, U. (2006). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural agricultural wetland soils of the Niger Delta Region. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5(15): 1415– 1421.
[34] Pecheyran, C., Lalere, B. and Donald, O.F.X. (2000). “Volatile metal and metalloid species (Pb, Hg, Se in a European urban atmosphere (Bordeaux, France)”. Environmental Science and Technology 34:27-32.
[35] Salbu, B., Kreling, T. and Oughton, D.H. (1998). Characterization of Radioactive Particles in the Environ. Anal. 123: 843 – 849.
[36] Singh, A. K., Hasnain, S. I. and Benerjee, D. K., (2003): Grain Size and Geochemical Portioning of Heavy Metals in Sediments of the Damodar River. A Tributary of the Lower Gang, India. Environmental Geology 39, 90-98.
[37] Tripathi A, and Misra D. R (2012) “A Study of Physico-Chemical Properties and Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils of Municipal Waste Dumpsites at Allahabad, India” Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, U.P., India International Journal of Environmental Sciences 2:4.
[38] Ugbune, U. and Okuo, J. (2011): Sequential Fractionation and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil from Battery Work Sites. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science. 29: 132-141.
[39] Ure, A.M. and Davidson, C.M. (2002). “Chemical Speciation in the Environment”. Blackwell, Oxford.
[40] Vogel’s, (2008): text book of quantitative chemical analysis. 6th Edition, Prentice Hall, England, pp 277.
[41] Wong, J.W.C., Li, K.L., Zhou, L.X., Selvam, A. (2007). The sorption of Cd and Zn by different soils in the presence of dissolved organic matter from sludge. Geoderma 137, 310-317.
[42] Young, M. and Crawford, J.W. (2004). “Interactions and self-organization in the soil-microbe complex”. Science 304: 1634-1637.
[43] Yusuf K. A. (2007) sequential extraction of lead, copper, cadmium and zinc in soils near Ojota waste site. Journal of Agronomy 6(2): 331-337.

Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 29 Downloads: 2 Page No: 574-584