Author: Mudasir Hassan, Khurshid Ahmad
Keyword: Walnut, Anthracnose, Marssonina juglandis, Perpetuates, Management.
Abstract: Walnut (Juglans regia) an important commercial dry fruit crop, is attacked by several diseases causing economic damage and amongst them walnut anthracnose caused by Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus has posed a serious threat to this crop in India and abroad. Walnut anthracnose results in reduction in quantitative parameters such as size, mass and actual crop of nuts, failure in metabolic processes in leaves and change in biochemical indices. Premature loss of leaves results in poorly-filled, low-quality, and darkened kernels. The disease initially appears on leaves as brown to black coloured circular to irregularly circular spots. These spots eventually enlarge and coalesce into large necrotic areas. Later on these infected leaves turn yellow and drop prematurely. Infection of anthracnose disease on leaves occurred at relative humidity above 95 per cent and severity of infection was not influenced by temperature between 10-32oC but was significantly reduced below 10oC. Anthracnose of walnut has been reported to be caused by Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus,with Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces. and de Not as its perfect stage reported that acervuli produced by fungus appeared early in the season as small black specks on the lower surface of diseased leaves. The pathogen(G. leptostyla) reportedly perpetuates primarily on infected leaf debris, and ascospores produced in perithecia act as the primary inoculum during spring. Burying (ploughing in) the fallen leaves in autumn and winter ,pruning of infected twigs and branches and adequate nitrogen fertilization has been recommended for the management of walnut anthracnose as well as under planting walnut saplings with annual and perennial legumes has been shown to increase foliage nitrogen content. Different formulations of mancozeb, dithianon, flusilazole and copper fungicides controlled anthracnose disease.
 Andrievskii, A.V. and Rikhter, A. A. 1976. Walnut selection for resistance to Marssonina Juglandis. Byulleten' Gosudarstvennogo Nikitskogo Botanicheskogo Sada29: 28-32
 Anonymous, 2012. Foriegn exchange earned on important fruit crops of Jammu and Kashmir. Directorate of Horticulture, Marketing and Produce, Govt of Jammu and Kashmir. pp.1-2.
 Anonymous. 2010. Food and Agriculture Organisation Statistics. Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations, Rome, Italy. .
 Anonymous. 2012. Area, production and yield of important fruits of Jammu and Kashmir state. Statistical Section, Department of Horticulture, Govt. of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar. pp. 1-2.
 Anonymous. 2013. Marssonina juglandis. Fungal Databases Nomenclature and Species Banks. MycoBank. www.mycobank.org/BioloMICS.aspx ?Link=T& TableKey. Rec. 1 of 1
 *Anselmi, N. 1979. Bronzing of willow caused by Marssonina salicicola (Bres.) Magn.Cellulosa e Carta 30 : 3 -19 .
 Arnaudov, V. A. and Gandev, S. I. 2009. Susceptibility of some walnut cultivars to Gnomonia leptostila(Fr.) Ces. et de Not. Acta Horticul.825 : 407-412.
 Arora, R. K. 1985. Genetic resource of less known cultivated food plants. NBPGR Science. Monograph, New Delhi.p.1.
 Bal, J. S. 2006. Fruit Growing. Kalyani Publications, New Delhi, India. pp.377.
 Behdad, E. 1991. Plant Protection Encyclopedia of Iran: Pests, Diseases and Weeds. Yad-boud Publisher, Nishat Press, Isfahan, Iran. pp. 158-160.
 Belisario, A. 1992. Phytopathological problems of walnut. Informatore Agrario 48: 51-53.
 Belisario, A., Forti, E., Cichello, A. M., Zoin, A., Barbieri, E. and Valier, A. 2001. Epidemiological survey of Gnomonia leptostyla in Juglans regia hedgerow trained orchard. Acta Horticul.544 : 405-409.
 Belisario, A., Scotton, M., Santori, A. and Onori, S. 2008. Variability in the Italian population of Gnomonia leptostyla, homothallism and resistance of Juglans species to anthracnose. Forest Pathol. 38 : 129-145.
 Belisario, B. 2002. Compendium of Nut Crop Diseases in Temperate Zones. (Eds. B.L. Teviotdale, T. J. Michailides and J. W. Pscheidt). APS Press, USA. pp. 77-78.
 Berry, F. H. 1977. Control of walnut anthracnose with fungicide in a black walnut plantation. Pl. Dis Rep. 61 : 378-379.
 Berry, L. I. and Frederick, H. 1997. Control of walnut anthracnose with fungicides in a black walnut plantation. Pl. Dis Rep.61 : 378-379.
 Black, W. M. and Neely, D. 1976. Effects of selected environmental factors on the severity of walnut anthracnose. Proceedings of the American Phytopathol. Society 3 : 284.
 Black, W. M. and Neely, D. 1978. Effects of temperature, free moisture, and relative humidity on the occurrence of walnut anthracnose. Phytopathol. 68 : 1054-1056.
 Black, W. M. and Neely, D. 1978. Relative resistance of Juglans species and hybrids to walnut anthracnose. Pl. Dis. Reporter 62 : 497-499.
 Cimanowski, J., Dlugowolski, B. and Olszak, M. 1991. Fungicide evaluation in the control of walnut tree diseases. Prace- Instytutu- Sadownictwa-I- Kwiaciarstwa-w- Skierniewicach.- Seria- A,- Prace- Doswiadczalne- z- Zakresu- Sadownictwa30: 95-98.
 Cline, S. and Neely, D. 1983. Penetration and infection of leaves of black walnut by Marssonina juglandis and resulting lesion development. Phytopathol. 73 : 494-497.
 Dastjerdi, R., Hassani, D. and Nikkhah, M. J. 2009. Study on some characteristics, assessment of pathogenicity and diversity in Gnomonia leptostyla isolates, casual agent of walnut anthracnose in Iran. Iran J.Pl.Pathol. 45 : 17-18.
 Devappa, V., Jahagirdar, S. and Prasad, K. 2006. Effect of fungicides on black spot of rose (Diplocarpon rosaeWolf.) under field conditions. J.Asian Horticul. 2 : 305-308.
 Dimova, M. 2007. Susceptibility of Izvor 10 walnut cultivar to anthracnose (Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces & de Not). Nauka Za Gorata44 : 73-79.
 Dimova, M. and Arnaudov, V. 2008. Control of the over-wintering stage of Anthracnose (Gonomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces. and de Not) in walnut. Rasteniev-din-nouki 45 : 32-35.
 Diousse, L., Pankow, J. S., Eckfeldt, J. H., Folsom, A. R., Hopkins, P. N., Province, M. A., Hong, Y. and Ellision, R. C. 2001. Relation between dietary linoleic acid and coronary artery disease in the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart study. American J. of Nutrition 74 : 612-619.
 Fayret, T. J. and Parguey L. A. 1976. Heat inhibition of saprophyte development during ripening of perithecia of Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces. de Not. Revue-de-Mycologie40 : 245-253.
 Figueiredo, M. B. and Hennen, J. F. 1995. Anthracnose caused by Marssonina salicicola, a new weeping willow disease (Salix babylonica L.) in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil. SummaPhytopathologica 21 : 253-255.
 Galea, V. J., Price, T. V. and Sutton, B. C. 1986. Taxonomy and biology of the lettuce anthracnose fungus. Transactions of the British Mycol. Society 86 : 619-628.
 Harada, Y., Sawamura, K. and Konno, K. 1974. Diplocarpon mali sp. nov., the perfect state of apple blotch fungus Marssonina coronaria. Annals of Phytopathol. Society of Japan40 : 412 - 418.
 Hashemi, S. R. R. 2005. Factors effecting epidemiology of walnut black spot (anthracnose) disease in Qazvin provinces. Iranian J.Forest and Range Protection Res.2 : 191-204.
 Hassan, K. A. 1979. Marssonina juglandis on walnut. FAO Plant protection Bulletin, Rome Itlay 27 : p.3.
 Jamshidi, S. 2011. Photoperiod and pH effect on Ophiognomonia leptostyla growth and sporulation. International Conference on Biology,Environment and Chemistry. IACSIT Press, Singapore24 : 188-191.
 Jamshidi, S. and Salahi, S. 2009. Growth and sporulation of some Gnomonia leptostyla isolates in various culture media. J. New Agricul. Sci.4 : 1-10.
 Jamshidi, S.., Salahi, S. and Samiri, J. 2012. Genetic diversity of Iranian Ophiognomonia leptostyla (Fr.) population using RAPD and ISSR markers. Annals Bio.Res.2 : 890-898.
 Kalkisım, O. 2012. In vitroantifungal evaluation of various plant extracts against walnut anthracnose (Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces et de Not.) J.Food, Agricul and Environ. 10 :3 0 9 - 3 1 3.
 Kaul, T. N. 1962. Occurance of Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) de Not on walnut in India. Current Sci.31 : 349.
 Kessler, K. J. 1984. Similarity of annual anthracnose epidemic in young Juglans nigra plantation from 1978 through 1982. Pl.Dis.68 : 571-573.
 Kleiner, B. D and Bulatova, Z. G. 1978. Effectiveness of fungicides in the control of Marssonina disease of walnut. Zashchita-i-karantin-rast-Sredn.-Azii-i-Yuzhn.-Kazakhstane.-Koordinats.-soveshch2 : 98-100.
 Matteoni, J. A. and Neely, D. 1977. Infection frequency and severity of walnut anthracnose with artificial inoculation. Proceedings of the American Phytopathol. Society4: 166.
 Matteoni, J. A. and Neely, D. 1979. Gnomonia leptostyla: growth, sporulation, and heterothallism. Mycologia 71: 1034-1042.
 Milicevic, T., Cvjetkovic, B. and Jurjevic, Z. 2002. Biology and control of the fungus Diplocarpon earliana (Ell. & Ev.) Wolf on strawberries. Fragmenta Phytomedica et Herbologic27: 5-13
 Movsesyan, L. I. 1978. Spots of ornamental trees and shrubs. Zashchita Rastenii 6: 49-50.
 Nadroo, M. A. 2006. Studies on Marssonina blotch of apple in Kashmir. MSc thesis submitted to SK University of Agricultural science and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, pp.33.
 Nakova, M. and Dimova, M. 2003. Anthracnose disease (Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces et de Not) on walnuts - chemicals for control. Rasteniev dni Nauki40 : 366-369.
 Neely, D. 1977. Long term control of foliar diseases of woody ornamentals with soil injections of benomyl. Pl.Dis.Reporter61 : 370-372.
 Neely, D. 1981. Application of nitrogen fertilizer to control anthracnose of black walnut. Pl. Dis.65 : 580-581.
 Neely, D. 1986. Total leaf nitrogen correlated with walnut anthracnose resistance. J. of Arboriculture 12 : 312-315.
 Pinter, C., Fischl, G., Kadlicsko, S., Danko, J., Gara, M. and Mako, S. 2001. Walnut pathogens in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica36 : 269-273.
 Pscheidt, J. W. and Ocamb, C. M. 2014. Walnut (Juglans spp.) Anthracnose Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook. OregonStateUniversity. pp. 40-57.
 Rana, J. C., Singh, D., Yadav, S. K., Verma, M. K., Kumar, K. and Predheep, K. 2007. Genetic diversity collected and observed in Persian walnut (Juglas regia L.) in the western himalayan region of India. Pl. Genet. Res. News Letter 51 : 68-73.
 Reiter, R. J., Manchester, L. C. and Tan, D. X. 2005. Melatonin in walnuts: influences on levels of Melatonin and total antioxidant capacity of blood. Int. J. Appl. Basic Nutritional Sci. 21 : 920-924.
 Rimfeldt, K. R. 1979. Canker on Salix. Gartneryrket 69: 188-191.
 Rosnev, B. and Naidenov, Y. 1986. Species of Marssonina parasitizing poplars, walnut and roses. Gorskostopanska Nauka 23: 53-61.
 Rosnev, B. and Tsanova, P.1980. The distribution of anthracnose in Bulgaria and measures to reduce its damage on walnut (Juglans regia). Gorskostopanska-Nauka17: 44-56.
 Salahi, S. and Jamshidi, S. 2009. Reaction of different walnut cultivars to Gnomonia leptostyla, causal agent of walnut Anthracnose. J. New Agricul. Sci.5 : 55-61.
 Salahi, S., Nikkhah, M. J. and Jamshidi, S. 2007. Investigation on the genetic structure of Gnomonia leptostyla populations by PCR-RFLP in Azarbayejan e Sharqi, Iran. J. New Agricul. Sci. 3 : 53-60.
 Saremi, H. and Amiri, M. E. 2010. Evalvation of resistance to Anthracnose (Marssonina juglandis) among diverse Iranian clones of walnut (Juglans regia L.). J. Food, Agricul. and Environ. 2 : 375-378.
 Sharma, M. R., Kour, K., Singh, B., Yadev, S., Kotwal, N., Rana, J. C. and Anand, R. 2014. Selection and characterization of elite walnut (Juglans regiaL.) clone from seedling origin trees in North Western Himalayan region of India. African J. Crop Sci. 8: 257-262.
 Shevchenko, V. S. 1981. Brown spot of Juglans regia. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo9: 63-64.
 Sogonov, M. V., Castlebury, L. A., Rossman, A. Y., Mejia, L. C. and White, J. F. 2008. Leaf inhabiting genera of the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales. Stud. Mycol.62 : 1–77.
 Thakur, V. S. and Nirumpa, S. 2010. Epidemic outbreak of apple blotch disease: epidemiology and management in H.P. Indian phytopathol.63 : 141-144.
 Todhunter, M. N. and Beineke, W. F. 1984. Effect of anthracnose on growth of grafted black walnut. Pl.Dis. 68 : 203-204.
 Townsend, G. R. and Henberger, J. W. 1943. Methods for estimating losses caused by diseases, in fungicidal treatments. Pl. Dis.Rep.27: 340-343.
 Tsanova, P. and Roshev, B. 1976. Walnut anthracnose and its control. Rastitelna Zashchita 24: 20-22.
 Tsanova, P. and Rosnev, B. 1976. Study of the fungus flora of Walnut in Bulgaria.Gorskostopanska Nauka 13: 89-102.
 Van Sambeek, F., Ponder, F. J. and Rietveld, W. J.1986. Legumes increase growth andalter foliar nutrient levels of black walnutsaplings. Forest Ecol. and Management 17 : 159 -167.
 Van Sambeek, J. W. 2003. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose. In: Proceedings, 13th CentralHardwoodForest conference. (Eds. Van Sambeek, J. W., Dawson, J. O., Ponder, F., Loewenstein, E. F. and Fralish, J. S). St. Paul, U.S. Department of Agriculture, North Central Research Station, pp. 565.
 Veghelyi, K. and Penzes, T. T. 1990. Life cycle, forecast and control of Gnomonia leptostyla (Fr.) Ces. et de Not. Acta Horticul. 284 : p.303.
 Vonica, 1970. Biology and control of Gnomonia leptostyla and its conidial stage Marssonina juglandis, causing anthracnose of walnut. Analele-institului-de-cercetari-pentru-protectia-plantea8 : 69-80.
 Vucinic, Z. 1977. Marssonina brunnea (Ell. & Ev.) P. Mang., a pathogen of dark spot on poplar leaves. Nature23 : 13-24.
 Werner, M. 1994. Diseases and pests of walnut. Ochrona Roslin 38: 13-14.
 Woeste, K. E. and Beineke, W. F. 2001. An efficient method for evalvating black walnut for Resistance to walnut anthracnose in field plots and the identification of resistant genotypes. Pl. Breeding 120 : 454-456.
 Wolcan, S. M. 1985. Effects of culture media, methods of inoculation and light regimes on Diplocarpon earliana (Ell. & Ev.) (Marssonina fragariae (Sacc.) Kleb.). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata 8 : 149-152.
 Zakhov, S. 1980.The state of walnut plantations in forest soils. Rastitelna Zashchita 28: 9-14.
 Zamani, A. R., Imami, A., Mirza, M. A and Mohammadi, R. 2011. A study and comparison of control methods of anthracnose disease in walnut trees of Roodbar region. Int. J. Nuts and Related Sci. 2: 75-81.
 Zhao, H., Huang, L., Xiao, C. L., Liu, J., Wei, J. and Gao, X. 2010. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and conidial production of Diplocarpon mali. Letters in Appl. Microbiol.50 : 639-644.
Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)
|Total View: 74
||Page No: 2319-2327