Deductive and Multi-criteria Approach to Ecosystem Modeling and Habitat Mapping of Shea Butter Trees (Vitellaria Paradoxa) in the Tropical Savanna

Deductive and Multi-criteria Approach to Ecosystem Modeling and Habitat Mapping of Shea Butter Trees (Vitellaria Paradoxa) in the Tropical Savanna ( Vol-2,Issue-6,November - December 2017 )

Author: Gabriel Salako1, Henry Sawyerr1, Abubakar Bashir2, Abel Adebayo2, Abdulrasheed Adio3

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/2.6.38

Keyword: Ecosystems, Mapping, Shea butter, Multi-criteria.

Abstract: An ecosystem map for 14 local administrative units of Kwara state North Central Nigeria and Vitellaria paradoxa habitat in the broad Savanna region was produced using multi criteria and integrated GIS models as against the traditional single layer thematic approach. The criteria used in classifying and mapping the ecosystems are: climate (rainfall and temperature), physiography (slope, relief), vegetation/land cover and drainage system. The climate layer was extracted from WorldClim database using DIVA GIS, the topographic layer was produced from 90 m NASA/SRTM digital elevation model. NDVI was run on composite images to produce vegetation layers.All the inputdata layers were spatially modeled in ArcGIS to generate the 7 classes of ecosystems. The Georefrenced trees sample points from field survey was overlaid on classified images to producedistribution pattern of Vitellaria paradoxa and its habitat in Savanna wood land ecosystems.


[1] Bailey, R.G., 1996, Ecosystem geography: New York, Springer-Verlag, 204 p., 2 pls. in pocket.
[2] Biodiversity Conservationwww.biodiversity_worldwide-info/biodiversity-conservation
[3] Comer, Patrick, Faber­Langendoen, Don, Evans, Rob, Gawler, Sue, Josse, Carmen, Kittel, Gwen, Menard, Shannon, Pyne, Milo, Reid, Marion, Schulz, Keith, Snow, Kristin, and Teague, Judy, (2003) Ecological systems of the United States, A working classification of U.S. terrestrial systems: Arlington, Va., NatureServe, 75 p. (Also available online at usEcologicalsystems.jsp.)
[4] Defries, R., & Townshend, J. (1994). ‘NDVI derived land classifications at a global scale’. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, 3567– 3586.
[5] Ghorbani A, Mossivand A.M and Ouri A.E (2012) ‘Utility of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for land/canopy cover mapping in Khalkhal County (Iran)’, Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3 (12):5494-5503
[6] Goreja W. G (2004) Shea Butter: The Nourishing Properties of Africa's Best-Kept Natural Beauty Secret Amazing Herbs Press Paperback
[7] Gladstone, W. and F. Thomas Ledig (1990).“Reducing pressure on natural forests through high-yield forestry.”Forest Ecology and Management 35(1): 69-78.
[8] Groves, Craig, 2003, Drafting a conservation blueprint; A practitioner’s guide to planning for biodiversity: Washington, D.C., Island Press, 404 p.
[9] IUCN (2013) Red list 2013: threatened species across the regions of the world.
[11] Kruckeberg, A. (2002). Geology and Plant Life: The Effects of Landforms and Rock Types on Plants University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, USA. 362 pages.
[12] "LANDSAT 8 Satellite details 2013-008A NORAD 39084". N2YO. 24 January 2015. Retrieved
[13] Lu, D. and Q. Weng (2007). A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol.28(5): 823-870.
[14] Lowry, J. H, Jr., R. D. Ramsey, K. Boykin, D. Bradford, P. Comer, S. Falzarano, W. Kepner, J.Kirby, L.Langs, J. Prior-Magee, G. Manis, L. O’Brien, T. Sajwaj, K. A. Thomas, W. Reith, S. Schrader, D. Schrupp, K. Schulz, B. Thompson, C. Velasquez, Wallace, E. Waller and B. Wolk.(2005). Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project: Final Report on Land Cover Mapping Methods, RS/GIS Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
[15] Loveland, T.R., Sohl, T.L., Stehman, S.V., Gallant, A.L., Sayler, K.L., and Napton, D.E., (2002)A strategy for estimating the rates of recent United States land­cover changes: Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, v. 68, no. 10, p. 1091–1099.
[16] Lugo AE Brown SL Dodson R Smith TS Shugart HH (1999). The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping. Journal of Biogeography 26 : 025 1038
[17] Meerman J C and Sabido W (2001) Central American Ecosystems Map : Belize Vol.1 Program for Belize Belize City.
[18] Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, Eric, Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D’amico, J.A., Itoua, Illanga, Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Yumiko, Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, Prashant, and Kassem, K.R.,(2001), Terrestrial ecoregions of the world; A new map of life on Earth: BioScience, v. 51, no. 11, p. 933–938.
[19] Province of BC (2006) Standard for mapping ecosystems at risk in British Columbia [electronic resource]: an approach to mapping ecosystems at risk and other sensitive ecosystems.ISBN 978-0-7726-5699-5.
[20] Rezza MIH andAbdullahi S.A (2016) Developing Ecosystem Maps Using Eco Geological Information for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. Open Journal of ecology, 6, 3
[21] Salako, G., Olalubi, O., Sawyerr, H., Howe, G., Adebayo, A. and Adio, A. (2016) Using Multi Techniques Analysis in Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification and Mapping of Mambilla Plateau in Taraba State Nigeria. Open Journal of Ecology, 6, 412-426.
[22] Sayre, R., P. Comer, J. Hak, C. Josse, J. Bow, H. Warner, M. Larwanou, E. Kelssa, T. kele,H. Kehl, R. Amena, R. Andriamasimanana, T. Ba, L. nson, T. Boucher, M. Brown, J. Cress, O. Dassering, B. Friesen, F. Gachathi, S. Houcine, M. Keita, E. Khamala, D. Marangu, F. Mokua, B. Morou, L. Mucina, S. Mugisha, E. Mwavu, M. Rutherford, P. Sanou, S. Syampungani, B. Tomor, A. Vall, J. Vande Weghe, E. Wangui, and L. Waruingi. (2013). A New Map of Standardized Terrestrial Ecosystems of Africa. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers. 24 pages.
[23] Sayre, Roger, Comer, Patrick, Warner, Harumi, and Cress, Jill, (2009). A new map of standardized terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1768, 17 p. (Also available online.)
[24] Scheldeman, Xavier and van Zonneveld, Maarten. (2010). Training Manual on Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy
[25] Treitz, P. and Howarth, P. (2000) Integrating Spectral, Spatial, and Terrain Variables for Forest Ecosystem Classification. Photogrammetic Engineering and Remote Sensing, 66, 305-317. [
[26] Trisurat, Y., A. Eiumnoh, S. Murai, M.Z. Husain and R.P. Shrestha. (2000). Improvements of tropical vegetation mapping using a remote sensing
[27] USGS/Gap (2002) Southwest Regional Gap analysis project (SWReGAP) (2002). Mapping land cover Large Geographic Areas. Integration of GlS and Remote sensing technologies

Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 51 Downloads: 14 Page No: 3078-3088