Evaluation for stable resistance to Stenocarpella maydis in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) ( Vol-3,Issue-1,January - February 2018 )
Author: Kelvin Simpasa, Herbert Masole, Langa Tembo
Keyword: Maize, ear rot, Stenocarpella maydis, resistance, mycotoxin, Specific combining ability (SCA).
Abstract: Maize ear rots caused by Stenocarpella maydis cause reduction in yield and quality of the maize due to the mycotoxins produced by the pathogen. Breeding for resistance is the most feasible option in managing ear rots. However, to obtain stable resistance to S. maydis has been a challenge partly due to effect of the environment and availability of different isolates. The objective of this research was therefore, to determine the effect of multiple isolate inoculations in breeding for resistance to S. maydis and to identify genotypes with stable resistance. Seven inbred lines were crosses in a 7 x 7 full diallel without reciprocals. The resultant crosses (21) and their parents (7) were planted and evaluated at two sites, Lusaka and Mpongwe, during the 2015/16 cropping season. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments were: (1) single inoculation with isolate A, (2) single inoculation with isolate B and (3) a multiple inoculation of two isolates AB and (4) control with no inoculation at all. The mean genotypic scores were found to be 5.52, 4.96, 5.50 and 1 for treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The t-test analysis revealed that treatment 1 had a higher mean disease severity score (5.52) as compared to treatment 2 (4.96) (P < 0.01). Equally mean for treatment 2 (4.96) and 3 (5.50) were significantly different (P < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences between mean disease severity score for treatment 1 and 3. This indicated that multiple isolate inoculations could give rise to inappropriate genetic information due to the possibility of antagonistic effect between isolates. The genotypes (P2 x P4) and (P3 x P6) crosses were found to have stable resistance to S. maydis. These exhibited consistent significant negative SCA effects (P< 0.05) in both locations.
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