A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion

A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion ( Vol-2,Issue-6,November - December 2017 )

Author: Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B.

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/2.6.49

Keyword: Gully Erosion, Rainfall Erosivity, Review, Model, Soil Loss, Sustainable Development.

Abstract: In this 21st century which is climate change-driven with more extreme rainfall events, gully erosion is increasingly becoming a global environmental problem influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. This paper is a literature review of rainfall erosivity as one of the natural factors of gully erosion. The central objective of the paper is to show in a global context how rainfall erosivity has influenced gully erosion. The method used is a review of academic/journal articles, textbooks, internet materials, conference papers and publicly available materials on gully erosion and rainfall erosivity as one of its factors. Previous authors whose works were reviewed on rainfall erosivity as a factor of gully erosion have a convergent view that rainfall is the primary cause of water-induced erosion and its power to do so is known as erosivity. They were of the view that a more intense rainfall of short duration can cause gully erosion more than a less intense one for a longer period of time. The authors also have a unity of opinion that areas with high rainfall regime such as the tropics are more prone to soil erosion than areas with low rainfall events. Recommendations to reduce the influence of rainfall as a factor of soil erosion include planting of trees and grasses that reduce the impact of rainfall to detach soil particles, conservation practices such as terracing, strip cropping and contour ploughing, a shift from rain-fed agriculture to dry season farming and grants to the affected people and landholders to manage gully erosion using adaptive measures based on their indigenous knowledge.


[1] Abdulfatai, I.A., Okinlola, I.A., Akande, W.G., Momoh, L.D., and Ibrahim, K.O. (2014). Review of Gully Erosion in Nigeria: Causes and Possible Solutions. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics, 2(3):125-129.
[2] Abraham, C.M. (2010). Implications of Gully Development on Agricultural Production in Akwa Ibom State. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the University of Uyo, Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
[3] Ando, H.F., Antwi, B.O., Wokatsuiki, T., and Atakora, E.T. (2012). Estimation of Soil Erodibility and Rainfall Erosivity Patterns in the Agroecological Zone of Ghana. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 3(11):275-279.
[4] Bols, P.L. (1978). The Iso-erodent Maps of Java and Madura: Report of Belgian Technical Assistance Project ATA 105, Bogor, Indonesia: Soil Research Institute, Bogor.
[5] Brodie, L., and Rosewell, C. (2007). Theoritical Relationship between Rainfall Intensity and Kinetic Energy Variants Associated with Storm Water Particle Wash Off. Journal of Hydrology, 340:40-47.
[6] Brown, L.C., and Foster, G.R. (1987). Storm Erosivity using Idealized Intensity Distributions. Transactions of American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 30:379-386.
[7] Chimelu, N., Okeke, F., Nwosu, K., Ibeh, C., Ndukwe, R., and Ugwuoti, A. (2013). The Role of Surveying and Mapping in Erosion Management and Control: Case Study of Omagba Erosion Site, Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 3(11):129-137.
[8] Dada, S. (2002). An Investigation on the Physical and Socioeconomic Determinants of Soil Erosion in the Harashe Highlands, Eastern Ethiopia. Land Degradation and Development, 14:69-81.
[9] Defra, (2005). Controlling Soil Erosion: A Manual for the Assessment and Management of Agricultural Land at Risk of Water Erosion in Lowland England. Published by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.
[10] Desir, G., and Marin, C. (2005). Factors Controlling the Erosion Rates in a Semi-arid Zone (Bardenas Realest NE Spain). Catena, 71:31-40.
[11] Ehiorobo, J.O., and Audu, H.A. (2012). Monitoring of Gully Erosion in an Urban Area using Geographic Information Technology. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(2):270-275.
[12] Ezeigwe, P.C. (2015). Evaluation of Socioeconomic Impacts of Gully Erosion in Nkpor and Obosi. Environmental Research, 7(7):34-38.
[13] Fornis, R.L., Vermeuleub, H.R., and Niuwenhuis, J.D. (2005). Kinetic-energy Rainfall Intensity Relationship for Central Cebu, Philippines for Soil Erosion Studies. Journal of Hydrology, 300:20-32.
[14] Fuhrer, J., Beniston, M., Fischlin, A., Frei, C., Goyette, S., Jasper, K., and Pfister, C. (2006). Climate Risks and their Impacts on Agriculture and Forests in Switzerland. Climate Change, 71:79-102.
[15] Gabrie, D. (2006). Assessing the Modified Fournier Index and the Precipitation Concentration Index for some European Countries. In: Boardman, J. And Poesen, J. (eds). Soil Erosion in Europe. Wiley and Sons, Ltd. 2(14):675-684.
[16] Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J.C., Pena-Monne, J.L., and De Luis, M. (2007). A Review of Daily Soil Erosion in Western Mediterranean Areas. Catena, 71:193-199.
[17] Hudson, N.W. (1986).Soil Conservation. Batsford Limited, London, United Kingdom, p.324.
[18] Igbokwe, J.I. (2008). Gully Erosion Mapping/Monitoring in Parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Paper Presented at Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State. Accessed at: http:/www.nasrda.or/doc/jibokwe.pdf on 02 11 2017.
[19] Isikwue, M.O., Ocheme, J.E., and Aho, M.I. (2015). Evaluation of Rainfall Erosivity Index for Abuja. Nigeria Lombardi Method. Nigeria Journal of Technology, 34(1):52-63.
[20] Istavonics, V. (2009). Eutrophication of Lakes and Reservoirs. Encyclopaedia of Inland Waters, 1:157-165.
[21] Jain, S.K., and Kothyari, U.C. (2010). Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield using Geographic Information System (GIS). Hydrological Sciences Journal, 45(5):771-786.
[22] Kalu, A.C. (2001). Soil Erosion and Landslides: 21st Century Issues and Challenges to Rural Development in Nigeria. Unpublished MURP Seminar Paper: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Abia State University, Uturu Abia State, Nigeria.
[23] Korea Institute of Construction Technology (KICT) (1992). The Development of Selection Standard for Calculation Method of Unit Sediment Yield in River. KICT, 89-WR-113. Research Paper (in Korean), 1992.
[24] Labriere, N., Locatelli, B., Laumonier, Y., Freycon, V., and Bernoux, M. (2015). Soil Erosion in the Humid Tropics: A System of Quantitative Review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and the Environment, 203:127-139.
[25] Lal’s, R. (2001). Soil Conservation for Sequestration. Proceedings of the 10th International Soil Conservation Organisation Meeting, 24th-29th May 1999, West Lafayette, pp.459-465.
[26] Lee, G.S., and Lee, K.H. (2006). Scaling Effect for Estimating Soil Loss in the RUSLE Model using Remotely Sensed Geospatial Data in Korea. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 3:135-137.
[27] Moges, A., and Holden, N.M. (2009). Land Cover Change and Gully Erosion Development in Umbulo Watershed, Southern Ethiopia. Mountain Research and Development, 29(3):265-276.
[28] Morelli, J. (2010). Economic Sustainability and the Preservation of Environmental Management. Journal of Environmental Management, 14(8):771-778.
[29] Morgan, R.P.C. (2005). Soil Erosion and Conservation, (3rd Edition). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[30] Narain, P. (2008). Dry Land Management in Arid Ecosystem. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci, 56:337-347.
[31] Ofomata, G.E.K. (2000). Missing Links in the management of Soil Erosion Problems in Nigeria. In: Environmental Pollution and Management in the Tropics, Snaap Publishers.
[32] Pathak, P., Wani, S.P., and Sudi, R. (2005) Gully Control in SAT Watersheds. Global Theme on Agroecosystems. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, p.28.
[33] Poesen, J. (2011). Challenges in Gully Erosion Research. Landform Analysis, 17:5-9.
[34] Poesen, J., Vandekerchove, L., Nachergaele, D.D., Wisdenes, G., and Verstraeten, G. (2002). Gully Erosion in Dry Land environment. In: Dry Land Rivers. Hydrology and Geomorphology of Semi-arid Channels, pp.229-262.
[35] Ramprasad, B.K., Kothyari, B.P., and Pande, R.K. (2000). Evaluation of Rainfall Erosivity in Bheta Gad Catchment, Kuman Hills of Littar, Pradesh, Central Himalayas. The Environmentalist, 20:301-308.
[36] Romkens, M.J., Helming, K., and Prasad, S.N. (2002). Soil Erosion under Different Rainfall Intensities, Surface Roughness and Soil Water regimes. Catena, 46(2-3):103-173.
[37] Salako, F.K. (2005). Rainfall Variability and Kinetic Energy in Southern Nigeria. Climate Change, 86:151-164.
[38] Shit, P.K., and Maiti, R. (2002). Rill Gully Erosion. In: Bad Land Topography: Field Measurement and Monitoring (A Case Study on the Western Part of West Bengal, India). LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany, p.136.
[39] Silva, A.M. (2004). Rainfall Erosivity Map for Brazil. Catena, 57:251-259.
[40] Simmons, R.W., and Rickson, R.J. (2008). Increasing Rainfall and Soil Erosion. In: Water and Food, pp.89-96.
[41] Soil Science Society of America (2001). Glossary of Science Terms – Soil Science Society of America, Modison, WI. Accessed at http:/www.soils.org/sssaglows, 10 10 2017.
[42] Thomaz, E.L. (2009). The Influence of Traditional Steep Land Agricultural Practices on Runoff and Soil Loss. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 130:23-30.
[43] Umah, K.A., Justin, U., and Braimoh, J. (2016). Investigating the Impacts/Causes of Gully Erosion in Auchi, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science, 4(4):1-13.
[44] United States Global Change Research Information Office (2001). Accessed at [http//www.gcrio.org/geo/soil/html], 20 10 2017.
[45] Wang, B., Zheng, F., Romkens, M.J.M., and Darboux, F. (2013). Soil Erodibility for Water Erosion: A Perspective and Chinese Experiences. Geomorphology, 187:1-10.
[46] Wischmeier, W.H., and Smith, D.D. (1958). Rainfall Energy and its Relationship to Soil Loss. Geophysical Union, 39:285-291.
[47] Wischmeier, W.H. (1959). A Rainfall Erosion Index for a Universal Soil Loss Equation. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 23, pp. 246-249.
[48] Wischmeier, W.H., and Smith, D.D. (1978). Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses – A Guide to Conservation planning. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook, p.58.
[49] World Commission for Environment and Development (WCED) (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford University Press.
[50] Yang, D., Kanae, S., Oki, T., Koike, T., and Musaike, K. (2003). Global Potential Soil Erosion with Reference to Land Use and Climatic Changes. Hydrological Processes, 17:2913-2928.
[51] Zegeye, A.D., Abiy, A.z., and Tebebu, T.Y. (2010). Surface and Subsurface Flow Effect on Permanent Gully Formation and Upland Erosion near Lake Tana in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14(11):2207-2217.

Total View: 201 Downloads: 30 Page No: 3151-3159

Cite this Article:


Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B. et al."A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion". International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878),vol 2, no. 6, 2017, pp.3151-3159 AI Publications doi:10.22161/ijeab/2.6.49


Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B., P.(2017).A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).2(6), 3151-3159.10.22161/ijeab/2.6.49


Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B., P.(2017).A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).2(6), pp.3151-3159.


Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B.. 2017."A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion". International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).2(6):3151-3159.Doi:10.22161/ijeab/2.6.49


Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B.."A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion", International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology,vol.2,no. 6, pp.3151-3159,2017.


@article { igwep.u.2017a,
title={A Review of Rainfall Erosivity as a Natural Factor of Gully Erosion},
author={Igwe P.U., Eze C.P., Ikeji C.A., Uzoegbu C.A., Emeh A.B. , R},
journal={International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology},
year= {2017} ,