Morphometric characterization of three Tsetse Fly Species - Glossina M. Morsitans, G. P. Palpalis and G. Tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) from Ghana

Morphometric characterization of three Tsetse Fly Species - Glossina M. Morsitans, G. P. Palpalis and G. Tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) from Ghana ( Vol-3,Issue-1,January - February 2018 )

Author: Edwin Idriss Mustapha, Maxwell Kelvin Billah, Alexander Agyir- Yawson

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.1.30

Keyword: Characterization, Ghana, Morphometric, Tsetse Fly, Wing length.

Abstract: Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the main vectors of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness and Animal African Trypanosomiasis, (AAT) or Nagana in Sub Saharan Africa. In Ghana, whilst HAT is no longer a major public health issue, AAT is still widely reported and causes considerable losses in the livestock sector resulting in major impacts on agricultural production, livelihoods and food security in the country. Application of morphometric techniques can reveal the existing level of population differentiation in tsetse flies, providing guidance on the distribution of genetically defined subpopulations. Morphometric techniques were used to compare size and shape of three tsetse fly species- G. m. morsitans, G. p. palpalis and G. tachinoides of Ghana, and also compare populations of G. p. palpalis collected from three geographical regions (Northern, Eastern and Western) of Ghana. Flies were sampled from four sites in the Western, one site in the Eastern and three sites in the Northern Region using standard un-baited biconical traps. Right wings and right hind legs of selected flies from different collection sites were removed and mounted on microscope slides using glycerin as the mounting medium. Images of the prepared slides were captured under a Leica EZ4 D microscope with an inbuilt camera connected to a laptop. Linear and proportions of wing and hind tibia measurements were arcsine-root transformed before analyzing with a general linear model in analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multivariate statistical analyses were used to detect any possible variations. Results of the GLM analyses of linear and ratio data revealed that different linear combinations can be used to characterize tsetse species of different populations. The ratio value hind tibia/wing length (th/at) significantly distinguished fly populations into four groups, Northern, Eastern, Western and the lab colony; this is an indication that hind tibia/wing length is a good morphometric feature which can be used to discriminate flies from different regions of Ghana. The principal components and canonical variates as well as Mahalanobis squared distances confirmed linear and ratio separations. Therefore based on these differences in morphometric characters observed, the three tsetse species were distinguished from each other. Similar work on morphometrics needs to be done to include more regions and many other body parts such as proboscis length, antennal length, thorax and abdomen length and width in order to establish stronger morphometric tools for discriminating different tsetse fly species.


[1] Jordan, A. M. (1986). Trypanosomiasis control and African rural development. New York: Longman Group Limited.
[2] Kabayo, J. P. (2002). Aiming to eliminate tsetse from Africa. Trends in Parasitology, 11: 473 - 475.
[3] Mahama, C. I., Mohammed, H. A., Abavana M., Sidibe I., Kone´ A. (2003). Tsetse and Trypanosomoses in Ghana in the Twentieth Century: a Review. Review Elev Medical veterinary Pays tropical, 56: 27 – 32.
[4] Ramatu, M. A. and Seidu, A. (2008). Socio-Economic Baseline survey report of the Upper West Region for the PATTEC project coordination Unit. Pong-Tamale, Ghana: Veterinary Services Department.
[5] Vreysen, M. J. B., Saleh K. M., Ali ,M. Y., Abdulla, A. M.; Zhu, Z. R, Juma, K. G., Dyck, V. A., Msangi, A. R., Mkonyi P. A. and Feldmann, F. U. (2002). Glossina austeni (Diptera: Glossinidae) eradicated on the island of Unguja, Zanzibar, using the Sterile Insect Technique. Journal of Economic and Entomology, 93: 123 – 135.
[6] Bouyer, J., Solano, P., Cuisance, D., Itard, J., Frézil, J.-L., and Authié, E., (2010). Trypanosomosis: Control methods., pp. 1936-1943. In: P.-C. Lefèvre, J. Blancou, R. Chermette G., Uilenberg [edis.], Infectious and parasitic diseases of livestock, Volume 2. Lavoisier (Tech and Doc), Paris.
[7] Torr, S. J.; Solano, P. (2010). Olfaction in Glossina-host interactions: a tale of two tsetse, 265 – 289. In: Olfaction in vector hosts interactions: Ecology and control of vector borne diseases, Volume 2. Edited by Takken B. K. W. Wageningen University, Netherlands, 437 pp.
[8] Rohlf, F. J. and Marcus, L. F. (1993). A revolution in morphometrics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 129 - 132
[9] Vignon, M. and Sasal, P. (2010) The use of geometric morphometrics in understanding shape variability of sclerotized haptoral structures of monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) with insights into biogeographic variability. Parasitology International, 59: 183-191.
[10] Camara, M., Caro-Riano, H., Ravel, S., Dujardin, J. P., Hervouet, J.P., de Meeus, T., Kagbadouno, M. S., Bouyer, J. and Solano, P. (2006). Genetic andmorphometric evidence for isolation of a tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) population (Loos islands, Guinea), Journal of Medical Entomology 43(5): 853 – 860.
[11] Kagbadouno, M., Camara, M., Bouyer, J., Hervouet, J. P., Morifaso, O.; Kaba, D.; Jamonneau, V.and Solano, P. (2009). Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea. Parasite, 16: 29 – 36.
[12] Solano, P., Bouyer, J., Itard, J. and Cuisance, D. (2010). Cyclical vectors of trypanosomosis, pp. 153 - 181. In: Infectious and parasitic diseases of livestock (Vol. 1), Chapter 012, P. C. Lefèvre, J. Blancou, R. Chermette and G. Uilenberg (Editors). Lavoisier (Tec and Doc), Paris.
[13] Bookstein F. L. (1991) Morphometric tools for landmark data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, xvii, 435 pp.
[14] Kimani-Njougu, S. W., Trostle, M. K., Wharton, R. A., Woolley, J. B. and Raspi, A. (2001) Biosystematics of the Psyttalia concolor species complex (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae): the Identity of populations attaching Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in coffee in Kenya. Biological Control, 20: 167 - 174.
[15] Billah, M. K. (2004). Biosystematic studies of Psyttalia species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Parasitoids attacking fruit infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. 236 pp. PhD thesis, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
[16] Billah, M. K., Kimani-Njogu, S., Overholt, W. A., Wharton, R. A. Wilson, D. D. and Cobblah, M. A. (2005). The effect of host larvae on three (Psyttalia species) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): parasitoids of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 25(3): 168 – 175.
[17] 17. Billah, M. K. Kimani-Njogu, S. W., Wharton, R. A., Woolley J. B. and Masiga, D. (2008). Comparison of five allopatric fruit fly parasitoid populations (Psyttalia species) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from coffee fields using morphometric and molecular methods. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 98: 63 – 75 Cambridge University Press.
[18] Woolley, J. B., Rose, M. and Krauter, P. (1994). Morphometric comparisons of Aphytis species in the lingnanensis group (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). pp. 223 – 244. In: Rosen, D. (Editor.) Advances in Aphytis Research. Andover, Intercept Limited UK.
[19] Sokal R. R. and Rohlf, F. J. (1995). Biometry: The principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. 3rd Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company, USA. 887 pp.
[20] Terblanche, J. S.; Klok, C, J., Chow, S. L. (2005). Temperature-dependence of metabolic rate in Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera, Glossinidae) does not vary with gender, age, feeding, pregnancy or acclimation. Journal of Insect Physiology, 51: 861 – 870.
[21] Adeleke, M. A., Mafiana, C. F., Idowu, A. B., Adekunle, M. F. and Dansu, B. M. (2008) Morphometric studies on Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia africana (Diptera: Culicidae) in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, (10): 2.
[22] Solano, P., S. de La Rocque, T. de Meeu¨ s, G. Cuny, G. Duvallet, and Cuisance D. (2000). Microsatellite DNA markers reveal genetic differentiation among populations of Glossina palpalis gambiensis collected in the agropastoral zone of Sideradougou, Burkina Faso. Insect Molecular Biology, 9: 433 – 439
[23] Kandemir, I., Moradi, G. M., Ozden, B. and Ozkan, A. (2009). Wing geometry as a tool for studying the population structure of dwarf honey bees (Apis florea Fabricius 1876) in Iran. Apicultural Research, 48: 238 - 246.
[24] Dujardin, J. P., Panzera, P., Schofield C. J. (1999) Triatominae as a model of morphological plasticity under ecological pressure Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 94 (1999): 223 – 228

Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 65 Downloads: 4 Page No: 239-248