Pollution and Foraging Behavior of Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis in Bujumbura Bay of Lake Tanganyika, Burundi: Conservation Implications

Pollution and Foraging Behavior of Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis in Bujumbura Bay of Lake Tanganyika, Burundi: Conservation Implications ( Vol-3,Issue-2,March - April 2018 )

Author: Claver Sibomana, Joselyne Nduwayezu

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.2.3

Keyword: Lake Tanganyika, pied kingfisher, piscivorous, pollution, semi-aquatic communities.

Abstract: Lake Tanganyika is threatened by overfishing, deforestation, climate change and water pollution. Very few studies have investigated the effects of pollution on semi-aquatic communities such as aquatic birds. This study investigates the effects of pollution on the foraging behavior of pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis in the Bujumbura bay of Lake Tanganyika. We use data on foraging behavior of this bird species collected in 2002 as background and data collected over two periods during which we assessed change in water environmental parameters. The sampling site is located in the littoral zone next to the channel mouths that collect rainfall and wastewater from Bujumbura city. The results show a change in the number of observations of foraging pied kingfishers during the course of the day with a significantly lower number of observations in the morning than in the study carried out in 2002. The most frequent foraging behavior also changed from direct dives in 2002 to repeated hovering before diving in 2016. These changes could be accounted for by pollution as the water parameters data collected during the same time periods reveal an increase in turbidity while dissolved oxygen levels dropped. Increased turbidity may have caused reduction of visibility of these visual predatory birds. Attention should be given to measures toward alleviation of pollution of Lake Tanganyika for the conservation of semi-aquatic communities which are members of this deep and ancient lake ecosystem.


[1] Abrahams, M., and Kattenfield, M. (1997). The role of turbidity as a constraint on predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 40:169-174.
[2] Alin S.R., Cohen A.S., Bills R., Gashagaza M.M., Michel E., Tiercelin J.J., Martens K., Coeveliers P., Mboko S.K., West K., Soreghan M.J., Kimbadi S., and Ntakimazi G., (1999). Effects of landscape disturbance on animal communities in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Conservation Biology 13:1017–1033. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.96476.x
[3] Cohen, A. S., Bills, R., Cocquyt, C. Z., and Caljon, A. G. (1993). The impact of sediment pollution on biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika. Conservation Biology, 7(3), 667-677.
[4] Cohen A.S., Palacios-Fest M.R., Msaky E.S., Alin S.R., McKee B., O’Reilly C.M., Dettman D.L., Nkotagu H.H., and Lezzar K.E. (2005). Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: IX. Summary of pale records of environmental change and catchment deforestation at Lake Tanganyika and impacts on the Lake Tanganyika ecosystem. Journal of Paleolimnology 34:125–145. doi:10.1007/s10933-005-2422-4
[5] Donohue I., Verheyen E., and Irvine K. (2003). In situ experiments on the effects of increased sediment loads on littoral rocky shore communities in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Freshwater Biology 48: 1603–1616. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2427.2003.01112.x
[6] Donohue I. and Irvine K. (2004). Seasonal patterns of sediment loading and benthic invertebrate community dynamics in Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Freshwater Biology 49:320–331. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01187.x
[7] Douthwaite R.J. (1976). Fishing techniques and foods of the pied kingfisher on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Ostrich 47, 153–160.
[8] Eggermont H. and Verschuren D., (2003). Impact of soil erosion in disturbed watersheds on the benthic invertebrate fauna of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Biological Conservation 113:99–109. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00353-1
[9] Hakizimana D., Uwarugira Y., and Ntahuga L., (2011): La pêche de Ceryle rudis Linné 1758 (Alcedinidae : Coraciiformes, Aves) dans le lac Tanganyika. Bulletin Scientifique de l’Institut Nationale pour l’Environnement et la Conservation de la Nature. 9: 39-45. (in French with an English abstract).
[10] Kashaigili J.J. and Majaliwa A.M. (2010). Integrated assessment of land use and cover changes in the Malagarasi river catchment in Tanzania. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 35:730–741. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.07.030
[11] Kumari, S., Singh, A. K., Verma, A. K., and Yaduvanshi, N. P. S. (2014). Assessment and spatial distribution of groundwater quality in industrial areas of Ghaziabad, India. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 186(1), 501-514.
[12] Laudelout, A., and Libois, R. (2003). On the feeding ecology of the Pied Kingfisher, Ceryle rudis at Lake Nokoué, Benin. Is there competition with fishermen. Interactions between fish and birds: implications for management, 165-177.
[13] Marijnissen S.A., Michel E., Cleary D.F.R., and McIntyre P.B. (2009). Ecology and conservation status of endemic freshwater crabs in Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Biodiversity Conservation 18:1555–1573. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9543-9
[14] McIntyre P.B., Michel E., France K., Rivers A., Hakizimana P., and Cohen A.S. (2005). Individual- and assemblage-level effects of anthropogenic sedimentation on snails in Lake Tanganyika. Conservation Biology 19:171–181. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00456.x
[15] Mölsä, H., Reynolds, J. E., Coenen, E. J., and Lindqvist, O. V. (1999). Fisheries research towards resource management on Lake Tanganyika. Hydrobiologia, 407, 1-24.
[16] Ndikumana T., Bizindavyi E., Kisoholo A., and Vasel J.L. (2013) : "Impact des collecteurs d’eaux pluviales sur la baie Nord-Est du lac Tanganyika." Bulletin Scientifique de l’Institut Nationale pour l’Environnement et la Conservation de la Nature. 12 : 55-60 (in French witz an English abstract).
[17] Nkotagu H.H. (2008). Lake Tanganyika ecosystem management strategies. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 11:36–41. doi:10.1080/14634980801891373
[18] O'reilly, C. M., Alin, S. R., Plisnier, P. D., Cohen, A. S., and McKee, B. A. (2003). Climate change decreases aquatic ecosystem productivity of Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Nature, 424 (6950), 766.
[19] Odada E.O., Olago D.O., Bugenyi F., Kulindwa K., Karimumuryango J., West K., Ntiba M., Wandiga S., Aloo-Obudho P., and Achola P. (2003). Environmental assessment of the East African rift valley lakes. Aquatic Science 65:254–271. doi:10.1007/s00027-003-0638-9
[20] Patterson, G. and Makin, J., (1998). The state of biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika – A literature review. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK.
[21] Paszkowski, C. A., and Tonn, W. M. (2000). Community concordance between the fish and aquatic birds of lakes in northern Alberta, Canada: the relative importance of environmental and biotic factors. Freshwater Biology, 43(3), 421-437.
[22] Reyer, H. U., Migongo-Bake, W., and Schmidt, L. (1988). Field studies and experiments on distribution and foraging of Pied and Malachite Kingfishers at Lake Nakuru (Kenya). The Journal of Animal Ecology, 595-610.
[23] Salzburger, W., Van Bocxlaer, B., and Cohen, A. S. (2014). Ecology and evolution of the African Great Lakes and their faunas. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 45, 519-545.
[24] Snoeks, J., (2000). How well known is the icthyodiversity of the large East African Lakes. In: Rossiter, A., Kawanabe, H. (Eds.), Ancient lakes: Biodiversity Ecology and Evolution, Advances in Ecological Research, 31. Academic Press, New York, pp. 17–38.
[25] Strod, T., Z. Arad, I. Izhaki and G. Katzir. (2004). Cormorants keep their power: visual resolution in a pursuit diving bird under amphibious and turbid conditions. Current Biology 14:R376–R377.
[26] Verburga, P. and Hecky, R. E. (2009). The physics of the warming of Lake Tanganyika by climate change. Limnology and Oceanography, 54 (6 part 2), 2418-2430.
[27] Vogel, J. L., and Beauchamp, D. A. (1999). Effects of light, prey size, and turbidity on reaction distances of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to salmonid prey. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56(7), 1293-1297.
[28] West K. (2001). Lake Tanganyika: results and experiences of the UNDP/GEF conservation initiative (RAF/92/G32). In: Burundi DR Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project Final Report (7/2001)
[29] Yu, C., Chen, S. S., Zhang, L., Gao, Q., Wang, Z., and Shen, Q. 2017. Changes in water quality of the rivers discharging into Lake Tanganyika in Bujumbura, Burundi. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, (just-accepted), 00-00. http://doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2017.1394772

Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 60 Downloads: 17 Page No: 332-337