Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon

Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon ( Vol-3,Issue-1,January - February 2018 )

Author: Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.1.8

Keyword: Rehabilitation, reintroduction, orphan chimpanzee, Pongo and Okokong Islands, Douala-Edea Wildlife Reserve.

Abstract: This study had as main objective to document on the reintroduction of chimpanzees in the Douala-Edea Wildlife Reserve which appears to be the first case of chimpanzee reintroduction in Cameroon. The study was carried out in the South East zone of the Douala-Edea Wildlife Reserve which holds a small chimpanzee sanctuary under the auspices of “Papaye France” association. Data was collected on the field using semi structured questionnaires, interviews and direct observations alongside a participatory action approach at the sanctuary. Data from discussion guide and questionnaires were descriptively analysed and discussed with respect to our objectives. There were 24 orphan chimpanzees all together present in the zone and being cared for by the association PAPAYE France. This association has released 16 chimpanzees on two Islands of the reserve, the first group made of 9 chimpanzees (6 males and 3 females) were released in 2008 on the Pongo Island and a second group made of 6 chimpanzees (4 males and 2 females) were released on the Okokong Island in 2010; one female was later introduced to this group early 2015. These chimpanzees were released after a rehabilitation process not in line with IUCN guidelines for reintroduction of great apes and not following any developed scientific approach or methodology. Despite this, the released chimps are faring well as new births have been recorded on either Islands, chimps feed, nest, movement and vocalize indicating there have gotten adapted to live on the Islands. It was also noted that the sizes of these islands may not maintain a viable, nutritionally self-sustaining population in the long run hence could better serve as a semi naturalistic sanctuary. It is necessary that the carrying capacities of the islands be determined while larger potential release sites be assessed and prepared for an eventual transfer/reintroduction of these apes in the future.

References:

[1] Ajonina, PU; Ajonina,G.N ; Jin, E. Mekongo, F ; Ayissi. I. & Usongo, L. (2005).Gender roles and economics of exploitation, processing and marketing of bivolves and impacts on forest ressources in the Douala- Edéa wildlife reserve, Cameroon. International journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 12 (2005):161-172.
[2] Beck, B., Walkup, K., Rodrigues, M., Unwin, S., Travis, D. and Stoinski, T., 2007. Best Practice Guidelines for the Re-introduction of Great Apes, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
[3] Boesch C, Uehara S, & Ihobe H. 2002. Variations in chimpanzee-red colobus interactions. In: Boesch C, Hohmann G, Marchant LF, editors. Behavioral diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Pr; p 221-30.
[4] Butynski, T.M., 2001. Africa’s great apes. In: Beck, B.B., Stoinski, T.S., Hutchins, M., Maple, T.L., Norton, B., Rowan, A., Stevens, E.F., Arluke, A. (Eds.), Great Apes and Humans: The Ethics of Coexistence. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 3–56.
[5] Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., N’Goran, K.P. & Boesch, C., 2008. Alarming decline of West African chimpanzees in Cote d’Ivoire. Current Biology 18 (19), R903–R904.
[6] Carter, J. (2003). Orphan chimpanzees in West Africa: Experiences and prospects for viability in chimpanzee rehabilitation. In R. Kormos, C. Boesch, M. I. Bakarr, & T. Butynski (Eds.), West African chimpanzees. Status survey and conservation action plan (pp. 157–168). Gland: IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. IUCN.
[7] CWCS (Cameroon Wildlife Conservation Society). 1998. Annual Report Mouanko,Cameroon. 11pp.
[8] D. Cox, N. Rosen, C. Montgomery and U.S. Seal (Editors). Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN). 2000. Chimpanzee Sanctuary Guidelines and Management Workshop:Report. CBSG, Apple Valley, MN.
[9] Elf – Serepca 1987. Conclusions et recommandations du Groupe d’Interprétation Bassin de Douala. Rapport multi graphie 341-DE No. 6/160 ,Douala. 30 pp.
[10] Goossens, B., Setchell, J. M., Tchidongo, E., Dilambaka, E., Vidal, C. & Ancrenaz, A. 2005. Survival, interactions with conspecifics and reproduction in 37 chimpanzees released into the wild. Biological Conservation, 123(4), 461–475
[11] Greengrass, E.J., 2009. Chimpanzees are close to extinction in southwest Nigeria. Primate Conservation 24 (online 1–7).
[12] Kormos R., Boesch C., Bakarr M.I. & Butynski T.M. (eds.) 2000. Chimpanzés d’Afrique del’Ouest: Etat de conservation de l’espèces et plan d’action. Groupe de Spécialistes des Primates, Commissionde la Sauvegarde des Espèces de l’UICN, Union International pour la Conservation de la Nature :http://www.primate-sg.org/PDF/WACAP.French.pdf last date of access 20/10/2015.
[13] Oates, J.F., Tutin, C.E.G., Humle, T., Wilson, M.L., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmforth, Z., Blom, A., Boesch, C., Cox, D., Davenport, T., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Gatti, S., Greengrass, E., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, C., Hunt, K.D., Kamenya, S., Maisels, F., Mitani, J.C., Moore, J., Morgan, B.J., Morgan, D.B., Nakamura, M., Nixon, S., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V., Stokes, E.J. & Walsh, P.D. 2008.Pan troglodytes. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. www.iucnredlist.org last date of access 20/10/2015
[14] Soorae, P. S. & Baker, L. R. (eds.) 2002. Re-introduction NEWS: Special Primate Issue, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi, UAE. No. 21:60 pp. (ISSN: 1560-3709)
[15] UNEP-WCMC 2011. UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species
[16] Van der Waarde .J.J (Ed), 2007. Water bird census of coastal Cameroon and Sanaga River, January March 2007.WIWO Report No 83. Beek –Ubbergen.
[17] Walsh PD, Abernethy KA, Bermejo M, Beyers R, De Wachter P, Akou ME, Huijbregts B, Mambounga DI, Toham AK, Kilbourn AM, Lahm SA, Latour S, Maisels F, Mbina C, Mihindou Y, Obiang SN, Effa EN, Starkey MP, Telfer P, Thibault M, Tutin CEG, White LJT & Wilkie DS. 2003. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa. Nature. 422: 611-614.
[18] WTG (Watershed Task Group), 2008. Annual Report Dizangue, Cameroon.

Total View: 75 Downloads: 14 Page No: 055-065


Cite this Article:

MLA

Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua et al."Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon". International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878),vol 3, no. 1, 2018, pp.055-065 AI Publications doi:10.22161/ijeab/3.1.8

APA

Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua, P.(2018).Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).3(1), 055-065.10.22161/ijeab/3.1.8

Chicago

Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua, P.(2018).Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).3(1), pp.055-065.

Harvard

Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua. 2018."Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon". International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).3(1):055-065.Doi:10.22161/ijeab/3.1.8

IEEE

Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua."Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon", International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology,vol.3,no. 1, pp.055-065,2018.

Bibtex

@article { tsievaristusangwafo2018rehabilitation,
title={Rehabilitation and Reintroduction of wild born orphan chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) within the pongo and okokong islands of the douala-edea wildlife reserve, Littoral Region Cameroon},
author={Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Atanga Roland, Valentine Buh Ebua , R},
journal={International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology},
volume={3},
year= {2018} ,
}