Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals ( Vol-3,Issue-5,September - October 2018 )

Author: Borah R, Biswas S. P.

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.5.21

Keyword: Ocimum sanctum, phytochemical, medicine, GC-MS.

Abstract: Ocimum sanctum also known as Tulsi or Holybasil is an aromatic plant and it belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is widely used as medicine to cure various ailments. The objective of the study was to analyse different phytochemical components of tulsi leaf. The dried powder of Tulsi (50g) was placed in the thimble of Soxhlet apparatus and the experiment was done separately for methanol, ethanol and distilled water. The percentage yield was 8%w/w,7%w/w, and 5%w/w respectively. The study reveals that various secondary metabolites such as carbohydrate, tannin, flavonoids, saponins, glycoside, terpenoid, fatty acids and phenol are present in tulsi leaf extract. From the quantitative analysis it was found that high amount of phenols are present in Tulsi leaf ranging from 1.6 to 7.6 percentages. Consequently the amount of alkaloid and flavonoids ranged from 0.91 to 1.28 and 1.56 to 2.24 percentages respectively. From the GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract three compounds were identified as major constituents viz., Eugenol , Benzene, 1, 2-dimethoxy- 4- (2- propenyl), α - Farnesene and Cyclohexane, 1, 2, 4- triethenyl. Thesephyto-chemicals are known to possess antiseptic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antistress, immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic, hypotensive and antioxidant properties. Hence it is more beneficial to use tulsi asan herbal medicine as compare to chemically synthesized drug.


[1] Asquith, T.N. and Butler, L.G., 1986, Interaction of condensed tannins with selected proteins. Phytochemistry, 25(7): 1591-1593.
[2] Azzouz, M.A. and Bullerman, L.B., 1982, Comparative antimycotic effects of selected herbs, spices, plant components and commercial anti fungal agents, Journal of Food Protection, 45(14): 1298- 1301.
[3] Bairwa, M.K, Jakhar1, J.K., Satyanarayana Y and Reddy, A.D. 2012, Animal and plant originated immunostimulant used in aquaculture , Scholars Researchs Library, 2 (3):397-400.
[4] Bishop, C.D., 1995, Antiviral activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betche) Cheel (tea tree) against tobacco mosaic virus, Journal of Essential Oil Research,7(6): 641- 644.
[5] Boham, B.A. and Kocipai, A.R., 1994, Flavanoids and condense tannins from leaves of Hawaiian Vaccinium vaticulatum and V. Calicinium. Pacific Science, 48: 458-463.
[6] Bonjar, GHS., Nik, AK. and Aghighi, S., 2004, Journal of Biological Science, 4, 405-412.
[7] Cowan, M.M. 1999, Plant products as antimicrobial agents., Clinical Microbiological Review: 564-582.
[8] Dewick, P.M., 1996, Tumor inhibition from plants: Tease and Evans. Pharmacognosy.
[9] Doss, A., 2009, Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian medicinal plants. Ancient Science of Life, 29(2): 12-16.
[10] Dugenci, S.K., Arda, N. and Candan, A., 2003, Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88 (1): 99–106.
[11] Edoga, H.O., Okwu, D.E., Mbaebie, B.O. 2005, Phytochemicals constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(7): 685-688.
[12] Harborne, J.B., 1973, Phytochemical methods. London. Chapman and Hall, Ltd.
[13] Hussain, A., Brahmbhatt, K. And Priyani, A., 2011, Eugenol enhances the chemotherapeutic potential of gemcitabine and induce anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity in human cervical cancer cells, Cancer Biother Radiopharm, 26(5): 519-27.
[14] Katsumi, Y., 1987, Minor components from growing buds of Artemisia capillaris that acts as insect antifeedants, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 35(6): 889-891.
[15] Khanna, N. And Bhatia, J., 2003, Action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in mice: possible mechanism involved. J Ethnopharmacology, 88(2–3): 293–296.
[16] Kim OK, Murakami A, Nakamura Y, Ohighashi H. (1998), Screening of edible Japanese Plants for nitric oxide generation inhibitory activities in RAW 246.7 cells. Cancer Let; 125 (1-2): 199-207.
[17] Konstantopoulou, I., Vassilopoulou, L. and Mavraganit, P., 1992, Insecticidal effects of essential oils. A study of the effects of essential oils extracted from eleven Greek aromatic plants on Drosophila aurora, Experiential, 48(6): 616-619.
[18] Kurita, N., Miyaji, M., Kurane, R. and Takahara, Y., 1981, Antifungal activity of components of essential oils, Agricultural Biology and Chemistry, 45: 945-952.
[19] Ou, H.C., Chou, FI. And Lin, T.M., 2006, Protective effects of eugenol against oxidized LDLinduced cytotoxicity and adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cell, Food and Chemical Toxicology , 44(9): 1485-595.
[20] Pandey, R., Kalra, A. and Tandon, S., 2000, Essential oil compounds as potent source of nematicidal compounds, Journal of Phytopathology, 148(7-8): 501-502.
[21] Park, B.S., Lee, K.G., Shibamoto, T., Lee, S.E. and Takeoka, G.R., 2003,Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC), Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51: 295-300.
[22] Pessoa, L.M., Morais, S.M. and Bevilaqua, C.M., 2002, Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus, Vet Parasitol, 109(1-2): 59-63.
[23] Rajesh, H., Rao, S.N., Prathima, K., Shetty , Megha rani, N., Rejeesh, E. P. and Lovely, N. J., 2013, Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum linn,International journal of universal pharmacy and bio sciences, 2(2):462-468.
[24] 24. Santra, S., Sinha, A. and Mondal, C., 2017, Effect of Herbal plant (Tulsi) against Common Disease in Gold Fish, Carassius Auratus (Linn. 1758), International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science (IJLTEMAS), 6 (2): 29-31.
[25] Sailaja, I., Shaker, I.A. and Ratna, Y.K., 2010, Antioxidant activity and phenolic contents in Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum bascilicum. Asian Journal of Bio Science, 5(1): 1-5.
[26] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., 1999, Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods of Enzymology, 299: 152-178.
[27] Sood, S., Narang, D., Dinda, A.k. and Maulik, S.K., 2005, Chronic oral administration of Ocimum sanctum linn augments endogenous antioxidants and prevents isoproternol- induced myocardial necrosis in rats, Journal of Pharmaco and Pharmacology, 57 (1): 127-133.
[28] Subramanian, G., Tewari, B.B., Gomathinayagam, R., 2014,Studies of Antimicrobial Properties of Different Leaf Extract of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) against Human Pathogens. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(8): 149-157.
[29] Tanwar, R., Pahare, A. and Naqvi, S. M. A., 2015, Ocimum sanctum (tulsi), excellent source of phytochemicals. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(5): 2231-6876.
[30] Vasu, K., Goud, J.V., Suryam, A., Singara and Chary, M.A., 2009,Biomolecular and phytochemical analyses of three aquaticangiosperms. African Journal Microbiology Research, 3(8):418-421.
[31] Williamson, E. M., 2002, Ocimum in major herbs of Ayurveda. Churchhill Living stone publication, London, 201-205.

Total View: 26 Downloads: 6 Page No: 1732-1738

Cite this Article:


Borah R, Biswas S. P. et al."Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals". International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878),vol 3, no. 5, 2018, pp.1732-1738 AI Publications doi:10.22161/ijeab/3.5.21


Borah R, Biswas S. P., P.(2018).Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).3(5), 1732-1738.10.22161/ijeab/3.5.21


Borah R, Biswas S. P., P.(2018).Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals. International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).3(5), pp.1732-1738.


Borah R, Biswas S. P.. 2018."Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals". International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology(ISSN: 2456-1878).3(5):1732-1738.Doi:10.22161/ijeab/3.5.21


Borah R, Biswas S. P.."Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals", International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology,vol.3,no. 5, pp.1732-1738,2018.


@article { borahr2018tulsi,
title={Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), excellent source of phytochemicals},
author={Borah R, Biswas S. P. , R},
journal={International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology},
year= {2018} ,