Yield gaps and nutrients use efficiency of apple tree (golden delicious/MM106) in the middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco

Yield gaps and nutrients use efficiency of apple tree (golden delicious/MM106) in the middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco ( Vol-3,Issue-1,January - February 2018 )

Author: Rachid Razouk, Abdellah Kajji, Khalid Daoui, Jamal Charafi, Mohamed Alghoum

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.1.33

Keyword: apple tree, leaf analysis, macronutrients, Morocco, soil analysis.

Abstract: The main objective of this work was to evaluate use efficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in adult apple orchards in the Middle Atlas of Morocco and to establish preliminary reference norms for fertilizing this crop under local conditions. The study was based on soil and leaf analysis and data with regard to farming practices and yield on forty apple orchards (cv. Golden delecious/MM106) where nineteen are growing on silty-clay soil and twenty-one on sandy-loam soil. The results showed significant correlations between leaf content for each nutrient and yield level following polynomial equations, thereby indicating local reference norms for apple leaf analysis. Moreover, correlations were significant between leaf and soil contents that permitted to determine apple needs in nitrogen fertilizer and references norms for soil richness in phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium to obtain yield potential in the study region. However, the found norms are less than international standards because of feebleness of yield level in the study region, largely related to deficient cultural practices adopted by farmers. In addition, investigation of leaf nutrients ratios N/K, N/Ca, K/Ca, K/Mg and Ca/Mg showed that there was disharmony in uptake of these nutrients originating particularly from high soil richness in Ca and Mg. Taking into account these considerations, the found references norms can be applied only under the adopted farming practices. Nevertheless, by improving local practices, reference values may change.


[1] Spiertz, H. (2013). Challenges for crop production research in improving land use, productivity and sustainability. Sustainability, 5(4).1632-1644.
[2] Mckenzie, R. (1998). Crop nutrition and fertilizer requirements. Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, 540(1).1-7.
[3] Laboski, C.A.M and Piters, J.B. (2012). Nutrient application guidelines for field, vegetable and fruit crops in Wisconsin. Ed. University of Winconsin – Extension. 94 pages.
[4] Cate, R.B.J.R. and Nelson, L.A. (1965). A rapid method for correlation of soil test analysis and plant response data, North Carolina International soil testing series bulletin. 1. 13 pages
[5] Neyroud, J.A., Amiguet S., Andrey G., Evequoz C. (2007). Le diagnostic foliaire en arboriculture : bilan de 20 ans d’étude. Revue Suisse Viticulture, Arboriculture Horticulture. 39(5).307-313.
[6] Granatstein, D. and Sanchez, E. (2009). Research Knowledge and Needs for Orchard Floor Management. International Journal of Fruit Science. 9(3).257-281.
[7] Neilsen, G.H. and Neilsen, D. (2003). Nutritional requirements of apple. In: Ferree, D.C and Warrington I.J. Apples: botany, production, and uses. CABI Publishing, Cambridge. 267-302.
[8] Von Wandruszka, R. (2006). Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility. Geochemical Transactions. 7(6).1-8.
[9] Ebdon, J.S., Petrovic A.M., White R.A. (1999). Interaction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on evapotranspiration rate and growth of kentucky bluegrass. Crop Science. 39(1).209-218.
[10] Ordonez J.C., Van Bodegom, P.M., Witte J.M., Wright, I.J., Reich P.B., Aerts, R. (2009). A global study of relationships between leaf traits, climate and soil measures of nutrient fertility. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 18(2).137-149.
[11] Day, R. (1965). Particle Fractionation and Particle-Size Analysis. In: Black C.A. Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 546-566.
[12] Drouineau, G. (1942). Rapid determination of the active limestone soil. Reportation new data on the nature of the limestone fractions. Annals of Agronomy. 12.441-450.
[13] Baize, D. (2000). Guide des analyses en pédologie. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France. 266 pages.
[14] Allison, L.E. (1965). Organic Cabon. In: Black C.A. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.1372-1376.
[15] Rayan, J., Garabet S., Harmsen K., Rashid A. (1996). A soil and plant analysis manual adapted for the west Asia and north Africa region. ICARDA, Aleppo. 244 pages.
[16] Joret, G. and Hebert, J. (1955). Contribution à la détermination du besoin des sols en acide phosphorique. Annals of Agronomy.2.233-299.
[17] Chapman, H.D. (1965). Cation-exchange capacity. In: Black C. A. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.891-903.
[18] Allison, L.E. and Moodie C.D. (1965). Carbonate. In: Black C. A. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.621-633.
[19] Cheng, L. and Raba, R. (2009). Accumulation of macro- micronutrients, and nitrogen demand-supply relationship of ‘Gala’ /‘Malling 26’ apple trees grown in sand culture. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 134(1).3-13.
[20] Raina S.K., Dar M.A, Wani J.A, Bhat M.Y., Malik M.A. (2014). Relationship of leaf nutrient content with fruit yield and quality of pear. Journal of Environmental Biology. 36(3).649-653.
[21] Kumar T.S, Kumar J., Kumar M. (2007). Effect of leaf nutrient status on yield and quality of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosal Chev.). Indian Journal of Horticulture. 64(2).77-88.
[22] Mahhou, A. (2008). Fertilisation des rosacées fruitières. Bulletin Mensuel d’Information et de Liaison du Programme National de Transfert de Technologie en Agriculture. 165. 4 pages.
[23] Oukabli, A. (2004). Le pommier : une culture de terroir en zones d’altitude. Bulletin Mensuel d’Information et de Liaison du Programme National de Transfert de Technologie en Agriculture. 115. 4 pages.
[24] Bould, C. (1969). Leaf analysis as a guide to the nutrition of fruit crops. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 20(3).172-181.
[25] Kenworthy, A.L. (1961). Interpreting the balance of nutrient elements in leaves of fruit trees. In: plant analysis and fertilizer problems. American Horticultural Biology Science. 28-33.
[26] Holb, I.J. and Nagy P.T. (2006). Study on the macronutrient content of apple leaves in an organic apple orchard. Journal of Central European Agriculture.7(2).329-336.
[27] Racsko J., Szabo Z., Nyeki J. (2005). Effect of nutrient supply on fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica borkh.). Journal of Central European Agriculture, 6(1).35-42.
[28] Morgan, J.B. and Connolly, E.L. (2013). Plant-Soil Interactions: Nutrient Uptake. Nature Education Knowledge 4(8).2.
[29] Hao, X. and Papadopoulos, A.P. (2004). Effects of calcium and magnesium on plant growth, biomass partitioning and fruit yield of winter greenhouse tomato. HortScience, 39(3).512-515.
[30] Ige D.V., Akinremi O.O., Flaten D.N. (2007). Direct and Indirect Effects of Soil Properties on Phosphorus Retention Capacity. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71(1).95-100.
[31] Thamrin M., Susanto S., Susila A.D., Sutandi D.A. (2014). Correlation between nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium leaf nutrient with fruit production of pummelo citrus (Citrus maxima). Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 7(3).129-139.
[32] Ben Hassine H. and Ben Mustapha A. (2014). Effect of the Phosphate Fertilization on the Production of Apple Trees Planted in Calcareous Alluvial Soil. International Journal of Multidisciplinary and Current Research. 2(7).812-817.
[33] Zydlik, Z. and Pacholak E. (2006). The effect of climatic and soil conditions on the mineral composition in the leaves of apple tree cultivars depending on the term of their fruit ripening. Latvian Journal of Agronomy. 9.172-176.
[34] Frink, C.R. (1965). Apple orchard soil and leaf analysis. Connecticut Agricultural experiment station Bulletin. 670.1-11.
[35] Fan, W. and Yang, H. (2011). Effect of soil type on root architecture and nutrient uptake by roots of young apple rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae. 903.885-890
[36] Burgos P., Madejon E., Cabrera F. (2006). Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate leaching of a sandy soil amended with different organic wastes. Waste Management and Research. 24(2).175-182.
[37] Najafi-Ghiri, M and Abtah A. (2013). Potassium Fixation in Soil Size Fractions of Arid Soils. Soil and Water Research. 8(2).49–55
[38] Anonymous. (1998). Western Fertilizer Handbook. 2nd Ed. California Fertilizer Association, Sacramento. 362 pages.
[39] Anonymous. (2012). Fertilisation des nouveaux vergers de pommier en Ontario. Ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Alimentation et des Affaires Rurales, Canada, 7pages.
[40] Sevely, C. (2008). Fiche technique pomme : production développée en Languedoc Roussin. Chambre d’Agriculture de l’Hérault. 8 pages.
[41] Wrona, D. (2004). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth, cropping and fruit quality of Sampion apple trees during 9 years after planting. Folia Horticulturae Annals. 16(1).55-60
[42] Soltner, D. (2000). Les bases de la production végétale : le sol et son amélioration. Sciences et Techniques Agricoles, Saint-Gemmes-Sur-Loire, France. 472 pages.
[43] Veverka, V. and Pavlacka, R. (2012). The effect of drip irrigation on the yield and quality of apples. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 29(8).247-252.
[44] Razouk, R. (2001). Diagnostic de la conduite de la fertilisation et de l’état nutritionnel du pommier dans la région d’Imouzzare. Mémoire de fin d’étude, Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture, Meknès, Morocco. 102 pages.
[45] Anonymous. (2006). Utilisation des engrais par culture au Maroc. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. 73 pages.

Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 109 Downloads: 4 Page No: 260-267