Effect of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, plant growth regulator and artificial lodging on grain yield and grain quality of a landrace of barley

Effect of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, plant growth regulator and artificial lodging on grain yield and grain quality of a landrace of barley ( Vol-2,Issue-4,July - August 2017 )

Author: S.S.M. Shah, X. Chang, P. Martin

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/2.4.60

Keyword: Landrace, Bere, nitrogen level, plant growth regulator, artificial lodging.

Abstract: Landraces of different crops are still preferred due to their stable yields under low inputs and adverse climatic conditions to which most modern varieties are not adapted. In the UK, a landrace of barley called Bere is currently grown in extreme climatic conditions of Orkney to which most of the modern varieties are not adapted. Although this landrace is probably the oldest barley under cultivation in the UK, very little research has been conducted. In this paper the effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, plant growth regulator and artificial lodging on grain yield and quality of Bere were investigated in the Orkney’s short growing season. Higher nitrogen application resulted in a higher lodging incidence but grain yield was not reduced by the severity of lodging. The artificial lodging applied at Zadoks growth stage 77 resulted in the greatest yield losses which indicated that control measures may be required to avoid lodging at this critical growth stage. Phosphorous and potassium had no significant effect on lodging resistance. Whilst plant growth regulator improved lodging resistance it was less effective in controlling lodging at the highest nitrogen level (90 kg ha-1). The trials indicated that higher level of N caused marginal increase in grain yield when nitrogen level was raised from 45 kg to 90 kg ha-1. This tended to suggest the use of medium N-level (45 kg N ha-1) for producing Bere. Plant growth regulator increased lodging resistance but had an inconsistent effect on grain yield. This study recommended the use of plant growth regulator as a means of easing harvesting rather than for enhancing yield and quality. The study concluded that phosphorous and potassium could be used to improve disease resistance and grain yield but not for lodging control.

References:

[1] Amtmann, A., Trouffard, S. and Armengaud, P., 2008, The effect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiologia Plantarum 133, 682-691
[2] Arnold, J. M., Josephson, L. M., Parks, W. L. and Kincer, H. C., 1974, Influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applications on stalk quality characteristics and yield of corn. Agronomy Journal 66, 605-608
[3] Baker, C. J., Berry, P. M., Spink, J. H., Sylvester-Bradley, R., Griffin, J. M., Scott, R. K., Clare, R. W., 1998. A method for the assessment of the risk of wheat lodging. J. Theoretical Biology 194, 587-603
[4] Bauer, F., 1964, Some indirect methods of determining the standing ability of wheat. Zeitschriftfur Acker-und Pflanzenbau 119, 70-80 Cited by Kelbert, A. J., Spancer, D., Briggs, K. G. and King, J. R. (2004) Screening for lodging resistance in spring wheat breeding programmes. Plant Breeding 123, 349-354
[5] Berry, P. M., Sylvester-Bradley, R., Berry S., 2007, Ideotype design for lodging resistant wheat. Euphytica 154, 165-179
[6] Bond, J. M. and Hunter, J. R., 1987, Flax-growing in Orkney from the Norse period to the 18th century. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 117 175-181
[7] Briggs, K. G., 1990, Studies of recovery from artificially induced lodging in several six-row barley cultivars. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 70, 173-181
[8] Casserly, L. M., 1957, The effect of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium on lodging in Oats. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 37, 245-251
[9] Christensen, N. W. and Killorn, R. J., 1981, Wheat and barley growth and fertilizer utilization under sprinkler irrigation. Agronomy Journal 73, 307-312
[10] Conry, M. J., 1997, The influence of different nitrogenous fertilizer and foliar-applied sulphur on the yield, grain nitrogen and screening of spring malting barley. Biology and Environment: Proceeding of The Royal Irish Academy. 97B, 133-138
[11] Crook, M. J. and Ennos, A. R., 1995, The effect of nitrogen and growth regulators on stem and root characteristics associated with lodging in two cultivars of winter wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 46, 931-938
[12] Day, A. D., 1957, Effect of lodging on yield, test weight and other seed characteristics of spring barley grown under flood irrigation as a winter annual. Agronomy Journal 49, 536-539
[13] Fischer, R. A. and Stapper, M., 1987, Lodging effects on high yielding crops of irrigated semi dwarf wheat. Field Crops Research 17, 245-258
[14] Foster, K. R., Reid, D. M. and Taylor, J. S., 1991, Tillering and yield responses of Ethephon in three barley cultivars. Crop Science 31, 130-134
[15] Gasper, P. E., Reeves, D. L., Schumacher, T. E., and Fixen, P. E., 1994, Oat cultivar response to potassium chloride on soils testing high in potassium. Agronomy Journal 86, 255-258
[16] Gately, T. F., 1968, The effects of different levels of N, P and K on the yield, nitrogen content and kernels weight of the malting barley (cv Proctor). Journal of Agricultural Science Camb. 70, 361-367
[17] Grashoff, C. and d’Antuono, L. F., 1997, Effect of shading and nitrogen application on yield, grain size distribution and concentrations of nitrogen and water soluble carbohydrates in malting spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) European Journal of Agronomy 6, 275-293
[18] Harlan J. R., 1975, Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188, 618-621
[19] Harrington, J. B, Waywell C. G., 1950, Testing resistance to shattering and lodging in cereals. Science Agriculture 30, 51–61
[20] Howard, D. D., Chambers, A. Y. and Logan, J., 1994, Nitrogen and fungicides effects on yield components and disease severity in wheat. Journal of Production Agriculture 7, 448-454
[21] Jedel, P. E. and Helm, J. H., 1991, Lodging effect on semi-dwarf and two standard barley cultivars. Agronomy Journal 83, 158-16
[22] Johnston, H. W. and Macleod, J. A., 1987, Response of spring barley to fungicide, plant growth regulators and supplemental nitrogen. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 9, 255-259
[23] Jordan, V. W. L. and Stinchombe, G. R., 1986, Interactions between fungicide, plant growth regulator, nitrogen fertiliser applications, foliar diseases and yield of winter barley. Annals of Applied Biology 108,151-165
[24] Kelbert, A. J., Spancer, D., Briggs, K. G. and King, J. R., 2004, Screening for lodging resistance in spring wheat breeding programmes. Plant Breeding 123, 349-354
[25] Kono, M., 1995, Physiological aspects of lodging. Cited by Matsuo, T., Kumazawa, K., Ishii, R., Ishihara, K., Hirata, H. (Eds.), Science of the Rice Plant, Physiology, 2. Food and Agricultural Policy Research Center, Tokyo, Japan 971-982
[26] Kramer, T., 1979, Environmental and genetic variation for protein content in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Euphytica 28, 209-218
[27] Large, E. C. and Dolling, D. A., 1962, The measurement of cereal mildew and its effect on yield. Plant Pathology 11, 47–57
[28] Lauer, J. G. and Partridge, J. R., 1990, Planting date and nitrogen rate effects on spring malting barley. Agronomy Journal 82, 1083-1088
[29] Ma, B. L. and Smith, D. L., 1992) Modification of tiller productivity in spring barley by the application of Chlormequat or Ethephon. Crop Science 32, 735-740
[30] Martin, P. J. and Chang, X., 2008, Bere Whisky - rediscovering the spirit of old barley. (online) http://www.bruichladdich.com/bere.pdf
[31] Martin, P. J., Chang, X. and Wishart, J., 2010, Yield response of Bere, a Scottish barley landrace, to cultural practices and agricultural inputs. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development 104, 39-60
[32] Martin, P. and Wishart, J. (2015). Just here for the bere. Brewer & Distiller International January 2015, 28-29.
[33] Martin, P., Wishart, J., Scott, B. (2013). Orkney Bere whisky – a single malt from a Scottish landrace. Landraces 2, 16-18.
[34] Mitchell, A. F. and Walters, D. R., 2004, Potassium phosphate induces systemic protection in barley to powdery mildew infection. Pest Management Science 60, 126-134
[35] Mulder, E. G., 1954, Effect of mineral nutrition on lodging in cereal. Plant and Soil 5, 246-306
[36] Newton, A. C. Akar, T., Baresel, J. P., Bebel, P. J., Bettencourt, E., Bladenopoulos, K. V., Czembor, J. H., Fasoula, D. A., Katsiotis, A., Koutis, K., Koutsika-Sotiriou, M., Kovacs, G., Larsson, H., Pinheiro De Arvalho, M. A. A., Rubiales, D., Russell, J., Dos Santos, T. M. M., and Vaz Patto, M. C., 2009, Cereal landraces for sustainable agriculture. A review: Agronomy for Sustainable Development 30, 237-269
[37] Newton, A. C., Thomas, W. T. B., Guy D. C. and Gaunt, R. E., 1998, The interaction of fertiliser treatment with tolerance to powdery mildew in spring barley. Field Crops Research 55, 45-56
[38] Papakosta, D. K. and Gagianas, A. A., 1991, Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation, remobilization, and losses for mediterranean wheat during grain filling. Agronomy Journal 83, 864-870
[39] Perrenoud, S., 1990, Potassium and plant health. 2nd edn. Bern, Switzerland: International Potash Institute
[40] Pinthus, M. J., 1967, Spread of the root system as indicator for evaluating lodging resistance of wheat. Crop Science 7, 107-110
[41] Pinthus, M. J., 1973, Lodging in wheat, barley and oats: phenomenon, its causes and preventive measures. Advances in Agronomy 25, 209-263
[42] Pswarayi, A., Van Eeuwijk, F. A., Ceccarelli, S., Grando, S., Comadran, J., Russell, J. R., Francia, E., Pecchioni, N., Li Destri, O., Akar, T., Al-Yassin, A., Benbelkacem, A., Choumane, W., Karrou, M., Ouabbou, H. , Bort J., Araus J. L., Molina-Cano, J. L., Thomas, W. T. B. and Romagosa, I., 2008, Barley adaptation and improvement in the Mediterranean basin. Plant Breeding 127, 554-560
[43] Schittenhelm, S. and Menge-Hartmann, U., 2006, Yield formation and plant metabolism of spring barley in response to locally injected ammonium. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 192, 434-444
[44] Stanca, A. M., Jenkins, G. and Hanson, P. R., 1979, Varietal responses in spring barley to natural and artificial lodging and to a growth regulator. Journal of Agricultural Science Camb. 93, 449-456
[45] Thompson, T. L., Ottman, M. J. and Riley-Saxton, E., 2004, Basal stem nitrate for irrigated malting barley. Agronomy Journal, 96, 516-524
[46] Tripathi, S. C., Sayre, K. D., Kaul, J. N. and Narang, R. S., 2003, Growth and morphology of spring wheat culm and their association with lodging effects of genotype, N levels and Ethephon. Field Crops Research 84, 271-290
[47] Walters, D. R. and Bingham, I. J. (2007) Influence of nutrition on disease development caused by fungal pathogens: implications for plant disease control. Annals of Applied Biology 151, 307-324
[48] Weibel, R. O. and Pendleton, J. W., 1964, Effect of artificial lodging on winter wheat grain yield and quality. Agronomy Journal 56, 487-488
[49] White, E. M., 1991, Response of winter barley cultivars to nitrogen and a plant growth regulator in relation to lodging. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge. 93, 449-456
[50] Widdowson, F. V., Jenkyn, J. F. and Penny, A., 1982, Results from factorial experiments testing amounts and times of granular N-fertilizer, late sprays of liquid N-fertilizer and fungicides to control mildew and brown rust on varieties of spring barley at Saxmundham, Sussex, Suffolk 1975-1978. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge 99, 377-390
[51] Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T. and Konzak, C. F., 1974, A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Research 14, 415-421

Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 77 Downloads: 9 Page No: 2020-2032