Molecular Characterization and Study of Genetic Relationships among local Cultivars of the Moroccan fig (Ficus carica L.) using Microsatellite and ISSR Markers

Molecular Characterization and Study of Genetic Relationships among local Cultivars of the Moroccan fig (Ficus carica L.) using Microsatellite and ISSR Markers ( Vol-3,Issue-1,January - February 2018 )

Author: Lhoussain Ait Haddou, Jamal Charafi, Abdelali Blenzar, Zerhoune Messaoudi, Hakim Outghouliast

ijeab doi crossref DOI: 10.22161/ijeab/3.1.4

Keyword: Ficus carica L., genetic diversity, ISSR markers, molecular characterization, SSR markers, varietal identification.

Abstract: Molecular characterization of Moroccan local fig (Ficus carica L.) germplasm was performed on the cultivars present in a collection of the National School of Agriculture of Meknes. A total of 22 fig samples were analysed using 7 ISSR primers and 9 loci S.S.R. A total of 54 I.S.S.R. polymorphic bands with an average of 8 per primers and 42 S.S.R. alleles with means 5 alleles per locus were revealed by these analyses. The ISSR markers allowed distinguishing 22 molecular profiles and S.S.R. loci differentiated between 21 different profiles. Pairwise Comparing, 87% of cultivars pairs were differentiated by 7 to 24 alleles and 89% by 9 to 29 ISSR bands. The statistical analysis and genetic distances have shown a wide molecular diversity in the collection, where the average observed heterozygosity was 0.42. The average similarity between cultivars is 70% using SSR markers and 71.6 for ISSR markers. The same SSR profile was obtained for Nabout1 and Nabout2 with 0 allele difference. Small differences of 1 to 6 alleles were obtained among cultivars which have the same names, which presumably corresponds to somaclonal variations obtained through intense vegetative propagation over long periods, while the differences over 7 alleles suggests the problems of homonyms.

References:

[1] Zohary, D. ; M. Hops., 2000. Domestication of plant in the Old World. Third edition, Clarendon press, Oxford.
[2] Oukabli A., A. Mamouni, M. Laghezali, M. Ater, B. Khadari, J. P. Roger and F. Kjelbberg., 2003. Genetical variability in Morrocan fig ( Ficus carica L.) based on morphological and pomological data. Acta Horticulturae.
[3] Chessa, I., G.Nieddu, and P. Serra., 1998. Fig germplasm characterization using isozyme analysis .ActaHort. 480: 143-148.
[4] Elisiario, P.J., M.C. Neto, L.E Cabrita, and J.M.Leitao., 1998. Isozyme and RAPDs characterisation of a collection of fig (Ficus carical.) traditional variet¬ies. Acta Hort. 480: 149-154.
[5] Uzun, H.I., I. Polat, and S. Gozlekci., 2003. Molecular identification of Turkish fig cultivars by fruit and leaf isozymes. Acta Hort. 605:45-50
[6] Valizadeh, M., P. Rivals and G. Valdeyron., 1977. Utilisation du polymorphisme proteique pour I' etude des varietes de figuier (Ficus carica L.). C.R Acad. Agr. 63:647-655.
[7] Geuna, E, M. Toschi, and D. Bassi., 2003. The use of AFLP markers for cultivar identification in apricot. Plant Breeding 122:526-531.
[8] Hokanson, s.c, W.E Lamboy, AK. Szewc-McFad-den, and J.RMcFerson., 2001. Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids. Euphytica 118:281-294.
[9] Oraguzie, N.C., S.E. Gardiner, H.C.M. Heather, M. Stefanati, RD. Ball, V.G.M. Vincent, and AG. White., 2001. Genetic diversity and relationships in Malus sp. Germplasmcollections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126:318-328.
[10] Wunsch, A and J.I. Hormaza., 2002. Cultivar identi-fication and genetic fingerprinting of temperate fruit tree species using DNA markers. Euphytica 125:59-67.
[11] De Masi,L.,M. Cipollaro, G. DiBernardo, U. Galderesi, G. Galano, A Cascino, G. Grassi, E. Pavone, and A Simeone., 2003. Clonal selection and molecular characterization by RAPD analysis of the fig (Fi¬cus carica L.) 'Dottato' and 'Bianco del Cilento' cultivars in Italy. Acta Hort. 605 :65-68.
[12] Khadari, B. ; P. Lashermes, ; F. Kjellberg., 1995. RAPD finger-printing for identification and genetic characterization of fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes. Journal of Genetic Breeding, 49 : 77-86.
[13] Jones, cr, K.J. Edwards, and S. Castaglione., 1997. Reproductibility testing of RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers in plants by a network of European laboratories. Mol. Breeding 3:381-390.
[14] Khadari, B. ; I. Hochu ; S. Santoni, A. Oukabli, M. Ater, J.P Roger and F. Kjellberg., 2003c. Which molecular markers are best suited to identify fig cultivars : a comparison of RAPD, ISSR and microsatellite markers. Acta Horticulturea
[15] Saghai Maroof M. A., Soliman K. M., Jorgensen R. A., and Allard R. W., 1984. Ribosomal DNA spacer length polymorphism in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location and population dynamics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 81:8014-8018.
[16] Achtak H, Oukabli A, Ater M, Santoni S, Kjellberg F, Khadari B., 2009. Microsatellite markers as reliable tools for fig cultivar identification. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science 2009, 134:624-631.
[17] Giraldo E, Viruel MA, López-Corrales M, Hormaza JI., 2005. Characterization and cross-species transferability of microsatellites in the common fig (Ficus carica L.). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 2005, 80:217-224.
[18] Ahmed S., Dawson D.A., Compton S.G., Gilmartin P.M. 2007. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the african fig, Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae). Molecular Ecology Notes 2007, 7:1175-1177.
[19] Khadari B, Hochu I, Santoni S, Kjellberg F., 2001 Identification and characterisation of microsatellite loci in the common fig (Ficus carica L.) and representative species of genus Ficus. Molecular Ecology Notes 2001, 1:191-193.
[20] Benbouza H., Jacquemin J.-M., Baudoin J.-P. &Mergeai G., 2006. Optimization of a reliable, fast, cheap and sensitive silver staining method to detect SSR markers in polyacrylamide gels. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ., 10 (2) : 77 – 81.
[21] Nei M. Li W.H., 1979. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.., 74 :5267-5273.
[22] Brzustowski J. 2002. Clustering Calculator “fast clustering algorithms, including UPGMA and Saitou-Nei neighbour joining” www.biology.ualberta.ca/jbrzusto/cluster.php Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta; Canada.
[23] Rohlf F. J. 2000. NTSYS-pc. Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Exeter Software, New York
[24] Botsein D., White R. L., Scolnick M. and Davis R. W., 1980. Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32:314-331.
[25] Nei M., 1978. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distances from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89:583-590.
[26] Belkhir, K., 1999. Genetix, version 4.0. A Windows program for population genetics analysis. Labo-ratoire Genome, Populations, Interactions. CNRS UPR 9060, U niversite Montpellier II, Montpcllier, France.
[27] Khadari B., Oukabli A., Ater M., Mamouni A., Roger J.P., Kjellberg F., 2004. Molecular caracterization of Morrocan fig germoplasm using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat and Simple Sequence Repeat markers to establish a reference collection. Hort Science, 40:29-32.
[28] Ikegami H., Nogata H., Hirashima K., Awamura M., and Nakahara T., 2009. Analysis of genetic diversity among European and Asian fig varieties (Ficus carica L.) using ISSR, RAPD, and SSR markers. Genet. Resources Crop Evol., 56:201–209.
[29] Nagarju J., Kathirvel M., Kumar R. R., Siddiq E. A. and Hasnain S. E., 2002. Genetic analysis of traditional and evolved Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties by using fluorescence-based ISSR-PCR and SSR markers. PNAS. 99:5836-5841.
[30] Wiesner I., and Wiesnerová D., 2003. Effect of resolving medium and staining procedure on inter-simplesequence- repeat (ISSR) patterns in cultivated flax germplasm. Genet. Res. Crop Evol. 50:849-853.
[31] Sica M., Graziella G., Montieri S., Gaudio L. and Aceto S., 2005. ISSR markers show differentiation among Italian populations of Asparagus acutifolius L. Gentics, 6:1-7.
[32] Talhinhas P., Naves-Martins J. and Leitâo J., 2003. AFLP, ISSR and RAPD marker reveal high levels of genetic diversity among Lupinus spp. Plant Breeding. 122:507-510.
[33] Pradeep A. R., Chatterjee S. H. and Nair C. V., 2005. Genetic differentiation induced by selection in an inbred population of the silkworm Bombyx mori, revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers systems. J. Appl. Genet. 46:219-298.
[34] Young J. P. W. and Hauka K. E., 1996. Diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia. New Phytol. 133: 87- 94.
[35] Konate I., 2007. Diversité Phénotypique et Moléculaire du Caroubier (Ceratonia siliqua L.) et des Bactéries Endophytes qui lui sont Associées. Thèse De Doctorat, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences de Rabat, 196 p.
[36] Charafi J., 2011.Caractérisation pomologique et moléculaire pour l’identification des génotypes en collection n°3 du figuier au domaine Ain Taoujdate (INRA-Meknès). Mémoire de titularisation. INRA. Rabat 57p.
[37] Charafi J., 2007. Diversité génétique de l’olivier au Maroc et cartographie génétique de la population hybride F Picholine marocaine x picholine de Linguedoc : Base pour l’amélioration variétale. Thèse de doctorat. Université Cadi Ayyad.
[38] Zine El Aabidine A., Charafi J., Grout C., Doligez A., Santoni S., Moukhli A., Jay-Allemand C., El Modafar C. & Khadari B., 2010. Construction of a genetic linkage map for the olive based on AFLP and SSR markers. Crop Science, 50 : 2291–2302.
[39] Khadari B, Charafi J, Moukhli A, Ater MA., 2007. Significant genetic diversity in Moroccan olive germplasm versus the occurrence of one prevalent cultivar: a paradoxical situation evidenced by the use of SSR loci. Tree Genet Genomes DOI 10.1007/s11295-007-0102-4
[40] Condit, I. J., 1955. Fig varieties : a monograph . Ed. Hilgardia, a Journal of Agricultural Science, California Agricultural Experimental Station, n° 11 : p 323- 538.
[41] Giraldo E, López-Corrales M, and Hormaza JI., 2008. Optimization of the management of an exsitu germplasm bank in common fig (Ficus carica L.) with SSRs. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 2008, 133:69-77.
[42] Saddoud O., Baraket G., Chatti K., 2008. Morphological variability of fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars. International Journal of Fruit Science, vol. 8, no. 1 - 2, pp. 35 - 51.
[43] Zietkiewicz E., Raflski A. and Labuda D., 1994. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)- anchored Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification. Genomics. 20:176-183.
[44] Culley T. M. and Wolfe A. D., 2000. Population genetic structure of the cleistogamous plant species Viola pubescens Aiton (Violacae), as indicated by allozyme and ISSR molecular markers. Heredity, 86:545-556.
[45] Oh T. J., Gorman M. and Cullis C. A., 2000. RFLP and RAPD mapping in flax (Linum usitalissimum) ». Theor. Appl. Genet. 101:590-593.
[46] Ait Haddou L., Blenzar A, Messaoudi Z., Van damme P., Zindedine F. et Sakhaoui A., 2013. Caractérisation pomologique de 22 cultivars locaux du figuier (Ficus carica L.) au Maroc. Europeen journal of scientific research, ISSN 1450-216 XI 1450-202 X, vol. No 3, October, 3013, Pp 416-428.
[47] Charafi J., 2012. Vérification de l’authenticité variétale par des marqueurs microsatellites des plants de figuier multipliés dans la région d’Ouazzane. Revue annuelle des activités de recherche. Projet Arboriculture Fruitière. Axe II : Variétés et leurs conduites techniques. Millenium Challenge Corporation (MCC) 257p.


Cite this Article: Show All (MLA | APA | Chicago | Harvard | IEEE | Bibtex)

Total View: 26 Downloads: 8 Page No: 018-027